TOUR2000 Lecture Three
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TOUR2000 Lecture Three
TOUR2000 Lecture three uq
cultural context and communication
Difference in Cultures:
History and geography
political social and economical organisation
beliefs and religions
rituals, etiquette and ethics
What is "worldview"?
the way people characteristically look out on the universe
systemised totality of beliefs about the world
system of beliefs that provides a frame of reference for understanding the culture's way of perceiving, thinking and speaking
lense we look through
shapes behaviours, beliefs, actions etc
fundamental understanding of how people look at the world
provide social rules and laws that govern almost every aspect of life
Secular: Post/Modern worldview
search for meaning, knowledge, answers to the big questions
use science and technology to attempt to explain worlds mysteries
Attempt to understand and interperet the spiritual/divine world
Worldview typically adopted by the East:
humans are one with nature
mind and body are one
humans should not try to control nature
humans shoudl feel comfortable with anyone
science and technology create an illusion of progress
enlightenment causes differences to disappear and brings oneness
rebirth - no judgement
Worldview typically adopted by the West:
humans = seperate from nature
humans consist of mind body and soul
humans have to manipulate and control nature to survive
humans should reward actions competetive in spirit
science and technology provide the good life
look to science and technology to explain
judgement @ end to get into "heaven or hell"
Realm of the Gods
Realm of the Humans
Realm of the Dead
Bad and good things occure because of the relationships between the realms
Meduims, Diviners and animals can move between realms
What is Purity and Pollution?
can be physical or spiritual (pollution = uncleanliness)
imaginary lines around people time space nature
pollution = out of place, not belonging
Purity and Pollution (boundaries)
What are the six areas of purity and pollution?
1. Time - daily, seasonal, lifetime
2. Place - clean/unclean
3. People - marriage/eating/authority and function (who to associate with)
4. Things - offered in sacrifice
5. Meals - grown, prepared, slaughtered, eaten & shared (eg Islam, Jewish)
6. Others - whoever, whatever can pollute by contact
How do you think issues of purity and pollution impact on guest-host behaviours?
EG: guests concerned with purity may only want to use towels once => direct impact on hotel and staff
Where can cultural differences be seen in the way we communicate?
- sentence structure
- body movement
- facial expressions
- physical space
- time orientation perception
What are some barriers to intercultural communication?
assuming similarity instead of difference
ethnocentrism (assuming your culture/background is superior)
What are sterotypes/generalisation?
A way of mentally organising what is familiar and unfamiliar so we can copare what we do not yet understand with what we already know
Can be negative, positive or neutral
Risk of assuming what applies to one applies to all
The reality is that we are all individuals within our culture
What is ethnocentrism?
negative evaluation of other cultures based on the person's own culture
belief that your way of doing things is right and preferable
a form of superiority
the reality is, we may have "different minds but similar problems"
What is racism?
belief that all members of a race/cultural background exhibit the same characteristics, qualities, and abilities
belief in superiority of one race over the other
often related to a negative view of the other person or group
What are some translation problems?
- differences in grammar/word order
- objects or experiences may not exist in all cultures therefore may not have a word for it
What does this mean for a tourism organisation?
select simple, specific, concrete words
use the most common meaning of words
avoid idioms, slang, jargon, buzzwords, and acronyms
respect the basic rules of correct grammar
be polite and formal
: meet your communication partner halfway
develop empathy and patience
in a business environment
: use several communication models