dr.e exam 3

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bekknjd29
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dr.e exam 3
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2010-10-24 12:48:31
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cells tissues
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integument, muscles ect
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  1. Integumentary Functions
    • protection(from mechanical, chemical, bacterial damage and UV-rays)
    • temp. regulation
    • fluid conservation
    • excretion
    • vitamin D(helps with calcium absorption)
    • sensation(touch/pressure)
  2. Epidermis Stratum
    • 1. Cornium=dead epithelials, keratinized, non-nucleated
    • 2. Lucidum=NOT in thin skin
    • 3. Granulosum=3-5 layers of flatten granular cells
    • 4. Spinosum=many layers, developing keritan
    • 5. Basale=deepest, single row of cuboidal/columnar cells thst divide and grow(ATTACHED TO DERMIS BY BASEMENT MEMBRANE)
  3. Epidermal Cells
    • 1. Keratinocytes=90%, has keratin which is tough fibrous intercellular proteins for protection and lamellar granules which is extracellular for water-proofing
    • 2. Melanocytes=8%, thay produce melanin which protects from UV-rays
    • 3. Langerhans=1-2%, migrate from bone marrow for skins immune response
    • 4. Merkel Cells=<1%, specialized epithelium for the sensation of touch
  4. Dermis
    • dense irregular CT
    • deep layer of skin
    • strength of skin
    • collagen
  5. Papillary Layer of Dermis
    • areolar CT
    • capillaries and sensory neurons
    • dermal papillae(sm. projections that help with the senses)
    • ex. fingerprints
  6. Reticular Layer of Dermis
    • dense irregular CT
    • collagen fibers go up and down
    • elastic cells and cells of CT proper
  7. Pacinian Corpuscles
    sensory receptors stimulated by heavy pressure
  8. Meissner Corpuscles
    sensor receptors stimulated by light touch
  9. Genetic Factor of Skin Colors
    • varying amnts and types of melanin
    • varying size/number of melanin granules
    • albinos lack melanin but not melanocytes
  10. Enviromental Factor of Skin Color
    • sunlight
    • sunlamps
    • UV-rays
    • x-rays
  11. Physiological Factor of Skin Color
    • dialation of dermal blood vessels(ERYTHEMA=skin reddening)
    • constriction of dermal blood vessels(PALLOR=pale skin)
    • oxygen levels(CYANOSIS=blue skin=low O2)
    • carotine levels(from eating to much food with carotine=yellow skin)
    • jaundice(yellow skin from bile/liver problems)
  12. Light vs. Dark Skin
    same amnt of melanocytes but they produce different amnts and colors of melanin
  13. Melanin
    protection against UV-rays
  14. Keratin
    water resistance
  15. Vitamin D
    • from sunshine
    • helps with calcium absorption
    • spinosum and basale layers convert cholesterol to vitamin D
  16. Subcutaneous Layer
    • hypodermis/superficial fascia
    • insulation
    • stabalizes dermis
    • reservoir for blood
  17. Hair
    • root=under skin
    • shaft=outside of skin
    • follicle=where hair emerges from(root to skin surface)
    • papilla=where hair developes
    • arrector pili muscle=attached to hair follicle(hair skicks up when shivering)
  18. 3 Types of Hair
    • 1. Lanugo=long, blond and fine(fetus and anorexia)
    • 2. Vellus=short, blond(children)
    • 3. Terminal=coarse, pigmented(adults)
  19. Hair Follicle
    • 1. medulla(some hair color)
    • 2. cortex(hair color)
    • 3. cuticle(covering, shingle like)
    • 4. internal root sheath
    • 5. external root sheath
    • 6. glassy membrane
    • 7. CT sheath
  20. Sebaceous Glands
    • holocrine glands
    • located near hair follicles
    • produces sebum(waxy and oily)
    • absent on palms and soles
    • functioins to inhibit bacterial growth, lubricates and protects keratin of hair, conditions skin
    • dicharges on face, back, chest, nipples and penis
  21. Apocrine Sweat Glands
    • associated with hair follicles
    • thick smelly discharge
    • under arms
    • happens when upset, frightened, in pain, sexually aroused
  22. Eccrine Sweat Glands
    • palms, soles, forehead, neck, back
    • discharges directly onto a surface
    • for termal regulation
    • DIAPHORESIS
  23. Nails
    • nail bed=skin that nail rests on
    • nail plate=clear keratinized part
    • nail plate root=underneath nail fold
    • nail plate body=overlyes nail bed
    • nail plate free edge=where nail extends beyond nail bed
    • hyponychium=epithelium of nail bed
    • nail fold=skin around edge of nail plate
    • nail groove=where nail and fold meet
    • Eponychium=cuticle(dead dermis)
    • nail matrix=mitosis(where nail grows from)
    • lunule=white cresent(b/c it overlies basale and obscures blood vessels)
  24. Hyperthermia
    • high temp
    • enviromental(heat humidity)
    • illness(temp greater than or equal to 37.2C)PYREXIA
    • erythema(blood vessels dialate causing skin to redden)
    • evaporation(sweat)
  25. Hypothermia
    • low temp(temp less then 35C)
    • primary=cold exposure
    • secondary=illness
    • clinical=surgical induction
    • pallor=pale color
    • shivering
  26. Healing of Cuts
    • 1. bleeding/clotting occurs
    • 2. scab forms(phagocytes remove debris)
    • 3. epidermal cells migrate over meshwork(collagen is produced)
    • 4. sheds scab/wound and is covered w/ epithelium(scarring)
  27. Tissue Repair
    • 1. regeneration=healing with tissue already present
    • 2. fibrosis=healing with scar(CT) tissue
  28. 3 Components of CT
    • cells
    • ground substance
    • fibers
  29. -CYTE
    fully differentiated
  30. -BLAST
    • derived from progenitor cells
    • early stages of differentiation
    • active in cell synthesis
  31. Fibroblasts
    • "work horses"
    • fixes damage(ex. scars)
    • large and star shaped
    • secretes protein which forms fibers
  32. Macrophages
    • motile
    • sometimes attach to fibers
    • clears foreign substances
  33. Mast Cells
    • large
    • usually near blood vessels
    • release chemicals to promote inflammation
  34. Collagen Fibers
    • thick and threadlike
    • can withstand high tension
    • holds structures together
    • tendons and ligaments
  35. Elastic Fibers
    • thin and stretchy
    • can bounce back
    • vocal cords and air passages
  36. Reticular Fibers
    • thin fibers of collagen
    • makes "meshwork"
    • allows cells to stay in CT
    • supports network
  37. Ground Substance
    • HYDROPHILLIC
    • controls passage of substances through matrix
    • hydrates CT
    • MAJOR MOLECULE=GAG's=GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS=(-) CHARGED POLYSACCHARIDES
  38. Tendons
    muscle to bone
  39. Ligaments
    bone to bone
  40. Aponeoroses
    • broad fibrous sheets
    • muscle to muscle(or bone)
  41. Areolar CT Proper
    • fibroblasts
    • collagen and elastic fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • binds skin to underlying organs
    • fills spaces between muscles
  42. Dense Regular CT Proper
    • fibroblasts
    • collagen fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • located in tendons and ligaments
    • used for attachment
  43. Dense Irregular CT Proper
    • fibroblast
    • collagen fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • provides strength in all directions
    • located in capsules of viseral organs, dermis, periostea(bone), perichondria(membrane of cartilage)
  44. Adipose CT Proper
    • adipocytes
    • reticular fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • located in body fat areas
    • insulation, protection and energy storage
  45. Reticular CT Proper
    • fibroblasts
    • reticular fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • located in basement membrane, spleen and liver
    • for support
  46. Elastic CT Proper
    • fibroblasts
    • elastic fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • located in heart and lungs
    • for durability with stretch
  47. Hyaline Cartilage
    • chondrocytes
    • collagen fibers so closely packed you can't see them
    • semisolid matrix
    • located on ends of ribs, bones and nose
    • *COVERED BY DENSE PERICHONDRIA=DENSE IRREGULAR CT WHICH CHONDROCYTES ARISE FROM AND SECRETE MATRIX*
  48. Elastic Cartilage
    • chondrocytes
    • elastic fibers
    • semisolid matrix
    • located in external ear, larynx
    • maintains shape and flexibility
  49. Fibrocartilage
    • chondrocytes
    • dense interwoven collagen fibers
    • semisolid matrix
    • located in intervertebral disks
    • stregth and shock absorption
    • less firm but tougher then hyaline cartilage
  50. Bone
    • osteocytes
    • collagen fibers
    • solid matrix
    • support, movement, calcium storage
    • DENSE=outer bone
    • SPONGY=inner bone
  51. Blood
    • eurythrocytes
    • leukocytes
    • platlets
    • plasma
    • fibrinogen
    • liquid matrix
  52. Fascia
    • connections between organs and the rest of the body
    • function=strength, stability, holds organs in position and acts as conduits
  53. Superficial Fascia
    • subcutaneous/hypodermis
    • aerolar CT
    • fat
    • between skin and organs
  54. Deep Fascia
    • strong fibrous framework
    • dense CT
    • bound to capsules, tendons and ligaments
  55. Subserous Fascia
    • between serous membrane and deep fascia
    • areolar CT
  56. Fibrous Pericardium
    fascia of the heart
  57. Muscle Tissue
    myocytes/muscle fibers
  58. Muscle Contractility
    • major property of ALL muscle tissues
    • ability to shorten muscles forcefully
    • causes movements
    • ACTIN(thin) and MYOSIN(thick) slide against each other during movement
  59. Skeletal Muscle
    • striated
    • voluntary
    • unbranched
    • multi-nuclear
    • cannot divide but new fibers can form from other cells
    • SATELLITE(PROGENITOR) CELLS FORM MYOBLASTS WHICH GROW INTO MUSCLE FIBERS
  60. Smooth Muscle
    • walls of organs and blood vessels
    • skin
    • involuntary
    • not striated
    • single central nucleous
    • unbranched
    • don't normally divide but can
  61. Cardiac Muscle
    • involuntary
    • autorythmic
    • striated
    • branched
    • single nuclei
    • cardiocytes, cardiac myocytes, myocardial cells
    • INTERCALATED DISKS have gap junctions and desmosomes
  62. Nervous Tissue
    • conducts nerve impulses
    • sensory reception
  63. Neurons
    • recieve and transmit signals
    • soma, dendrites and axons
  64. Neuroglia
    • maintains nervous tissue structue
    • repairs framework
    • performs phagocytosis
    • provides nutrients
    • NOT neural but "neuron support"
  65. Signs of Inflammation
    • redness and heat due to increased blood flow
    • pain and swelling due to the chemicals released
    • loss of function tells you to stop and repair the damage
  66. Mast Cells
    • during inflammation they degranulate and release chemicals
    • HEPARIN-keeps blood flowing to increase O2 and nutrients
    • HISTAMINE-dialates blood vessels and gets "leaky"
    • increases number and activity of phagocytes
    • removes toxins and waste
    • *INFLAMMATION THEN REPAIR -> HOMESTASIS BECAUSE OF REGENERATION*
  67. Covering/Lining Epithelium
    • skin
    • communicates w/ outside(ex. digestive, respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts)
    • stays internal(ex. chest and abdominal cavities, endothelium of blood vessels and heart)
  68. Glandular Epithelium
    • often lies in clusters
    • deep to covering/lining epithelium
    • secretes into ducts and blood or onto surfaces
  69. Epithelial Functions
    • protection
    • secretion
    • absorption
    • filtration
    • sensation
    • specialized secretions
  70. Epithelial Characteristics
    • specialized contacts with other cells
    • polarity(diff. ends do diff. things)
    • avascular(no blood supply)
    • regeneration(high rate of cell division)
    • cellularity(lots of cells in close contact with little intercellular material)
  71. Basal Lamina
    • BASEMENT MEMBRANE
    • 1. lamina lucida=glycoprotein and fine protein filaments which act as a barrier
    • 2. lamina densa=bundles of close protein fibers, gives basal lamina strength
  72. Classification of ET
    • shape=squamous, cuboidal, columnar
    • layering=simple, stratified
  73. Mesothelium
    • lines ventral body cavities
    • simple squamous
    • produces serous membrane
  74. Endothelium
    lines blood vessels
  75. Simple Squamous ET
    • single layer of flat cells
    • for diffusion and reduces frictions so substances pass easily
    • lines air sacs, capillaries, lymph vessels, ventral cavity coverings
  76. Simple Cubiodal
    • single layer of cube shaped cells
    • large celtrally located nucleus
    • for absorption and secretion
    • lines kidney tubules and ducts of glands
  77. Simple Columnar
    • single layer of tall cells
    • basally located nucleus
    • goblet cells
    • microvilli
    • for protection, absorption and secretion
    • lines intestines
  78. Psudostratified Columnar
    • single layer of tall cells with scattered nucleus
    • cillia
    • goblet cells
    • for protection and secretion
    • lines trachea and fallopean tubes
  79. Stratified Squamous
    • many layers w/ top layer of flat cells
    • KERITENIZED=epidermis
    • NONKERITENTIZED=vagina, mouth and anus
    • for protection
  80. Transitional Epithelium
    • several layers
    • cells change shape under pressure
    • DISTENSIBLITY=ability to stretch then return to origional shape
    • lines ureters and bladder
  81. Tight Junctions
    close spaces between cells so that substances are forced through cells rather then around them

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