Chem Ch.6

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ballinbc14
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44564
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Chem Ch.6
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2010-11-07 00:52:57
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chem electronic structure Periodic Table
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Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table
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  1. What are the terms used to refer to the relative sizes of atoms and ions?
    Atomic radius / Ionic radius
  2. What is the distance between consecutive crests and troughs on a wave...and what is it measured in?
    • Wavelength (lambda)
    • Measured in nanometers (10-9m)
  3. What is the term used for the number of wave cycles that pass through a given point in a given amount of time?
    What is it measured in?
    • Frequency (v or f)
    • Hertz (Hz)
  4. The speed of a wave can be found using...
    • c=v(lambda)
    • a.k.a
    • v=f(lambda)
  5. What is the accepted value for the speed of light?
    2.998*108m/s
  6. What is the wavelength spectrum that light spans?
    400 to 700 nanometers
  7. What are light particles called?
    Photons
  8. What is the equation used to describe the energy given off by a single particle of light?
    E=hv=hc/(lambda)
  9. What is "h" appearing in the light energy equation?
    • Planck's constant
    • h=6.626E-34 J*s
  10. What is the value of Rydberg's constant?
    Rh = 2.180*10-18 J
  11. What is the equation for Bohr's model?
    • En = -RH/n2
    • En is energy of the electron
    • RH is Rydberg's constant
    • n is the energy state of the electron
  12. What is Bohr's equation to find the change in energy between 2 energy states.
    • hv = -RH[ 1/(nhi)2 - 1/(nlo)2 ]
    • a.k.a
    • delta(E) = Ehi - Elo
  13. What is the first quantum number and what does it represent?
    • Quantum number is: n
    • Represents the principal energy level of the electron
    • Can only be integers
  14. What is the second quantum number and what does it represent?
    • 2nd Quantum # is: l
    • It represents the sublevel
    • Also known as orbitals
  15. What are the limitations on Quantum number "l"
    • Must be an integer greater than or equal to 0
    • l must be at least 1 value less than Quantum n
  16. What are the "l" sublevel designations and what do they equal (in order)
    • s = 0
    • p = 1
    • d = 2
    • f = 3
  17. What are n and l in a 3d sublevel?
    • n = 3
    • l = 2
  18. Can there be a 2d sublevel?
    No because the l value cannot be equal or greater than n
  19. What is the third Quantum number and what does it refer to?
    • 3rd Quantum # is: ml
    • Denotes the direction in space of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus
  20. What are the limitations on the Quantum # ml ?
    ml can only be integer values between l and -l
  21. Do the orbitals in a given sublevel have differing energies?
    No
  22. What is the fourth Quantum # and what does it denote?
    • 4th Quantum # is: ms
    • Denotes the direction of the electron spin
  23. What are the possible values for ms?
    +(1/2) or -(1/2)
  24. 1) Electrons with the same ms value have __ spins.
    2) Electrons with the differing ms values have __ spins.
    • 1) Parallel
    • 2) Opposed
  25. What does the Pauli Exclusion Principle say?
    Says that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four Quantum #s
  26. What is the max amount of electrons per orbital and what would their electron spins be?
    2 is the max and they would have opposing electron spins (+ and - 1/2)
  27. p orbitals lie along which axes?
    s orbitals are always what shape
    • x, y, and z axes 90 to each other
    • Spheres
  28. In an electron configuration what denotes the amount of electrons in each sublevel?
    The superscript (i.e. 1s22s2)
  29. What is the electron configuration for 18Ar?
    What happens after this?
    • 1s22s22p63s23p
    • After this the 4s level is filled before the 3ds are
  30. What is the capacity of a d sublevel?
    10 electrons
  31. What is the capacity of an f sublevel?
    14 electrons
  32. How do you write an abbreviated electron configuration?
    Start with the preceding noble gas in brackets and fill in the remaining orbital configurations next to it.
  33. What is the abbreviated electron configuration for Lithium? ( 3Li )
    [He]2s1
  34. Tell me what sublevel each of these in the periodic table fill:
    1) Alkali and Alkaline earth metals
    2) Transition metals
    3) Group 13 through 18
    4) Actinides and Lanthanides
    • 1) s
    • 2) d
    • 3) p
    • 4) f
  35. What does Hund's rule say for electrons in Orbital Diagrams
    When many orbitals are available in a sublevel for a small amount of atoms, the atoms enter into seperate orbitals and maintain parallel spins.
  36. In Orbital Diagrams, do paired electrons ever have parallel spins?
    No, always opposite..only way to live in harmony
  37. 1) Solid substances with primarily unpaired electrons that are attracted to a magnetic field are called...?
    2) What about those that have only paired electrons?
    • 1) Paramagnetic
    • 2) Diamagnetic
  38. What does isoelectronic mean..when does it happen?
    • Means having the same electron configuration
    • Happens primarily when elements loose electrons to form ions and thus have the same configuration as another element/ion
  39. When cations form and electrons need to be removed to form them where do the first electrons come from?
    The sublevel with the highest n value
  40. "The chemical and physical properties of elements are a function of their atomic number"...what is this statement?
    Periodic Law
  41. The atomic radius of an element is known to be...
    One half the closest distance between the nuclei of 2 atoms in an element
  42. Atomic radii does what from left to right on the periodic table?
    From top down?
    • Decreases left to right
    • Increases top down
  43. What do you know about the atomic radius of anions and cations compared to their elemental counterparts?
    • The atomic radius of cations are always smaller than those of their neutral elements
    • The atomic radius of anions are always larger than those of their neutral elements
  44. What is the charge felt by the outermost electron(s) in an element called?
    • Effective Nuclear Charge
    • or
    • Z-effective
  45. What is the measure of how difficult it is to remove an electron from a gaseous atom?
    Is it ever negative?
    • Ionization Energy
    • Always absorbed so always positive
  46. How does Ionization energy differ left to right and top down on the periodic table?
    • Ionization energy increases left to right
    • decreases top-down
  47. Helium has one of the smallest atomic radii...can you take its electron easily?
    Nope..need a lot of ionization energy
  48. What is electronegativity?
    This is a measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself.
  49. How does electronegativity normally change throughout the periodic table?
    • Increases from left to right
    • Decreases top-bottom
  50. What is the order of wavelengths on the (also energy on the electromagnetic spectrum)
    {in terms of Lowest to Highest energy}
    • Radio Wave... LONG Wavelength
    • Microwave
    • Infrared (below red)
    • Visible: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo VioletUltraviolet (beyond violet)
    • X-Ray

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