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Motivation is managing ____________, Leadership is changing __________
Hertzberg’s Two-factor theory says that motivation occurs by meeting higher level needs:
- • Achievement
- • Recognition
- • The Work Itself
- • Responsibility
- • Advancement
- • Growth
Hygiene Factors are lower level (these are expected and will not motivate people more):
- • Supervision
- • Working Conditions
- • Interpersonal Relations
- • Pay
- • Security
- • Company Policies
Expectancy (Motivation) Theory explained:
- “Increases the probability that the reward is attainable and applies to the effort to attain it.”
- Effort -----------> Performance -----------> Reward
Effort determines performance
- o Interactive goal setting
- o Training
- o Feedback
- o Positive Reinforcement
Performance determines rewards
- o Accurate performance measurement
- o Consistent application of rewards
- o Trust
Rewards are valued
- o Consider personality
- o Consider non-financial rewards
- o Maintain internal and external equity
What makes an effective Leader?
- Have a Vision
- Clearly Communicate the Vision
- Exemplify the Vision
- Build Confidence
- Focus on Higher Order Goals
- Build a Moral Foundation for the Vision
Leadership is a substitute for __________
Leadership is the skill needed when ________ cannot be used
Leadership involves persuading others to accept __________________
your goals as their own
Rule of managing change (3 points)
- 1. No matter how good of an idea, there will always be opposition.
- 2. It is important, however, to respond to opportunities rather than view change as a necessary evil.
- 3. Be sure the cost of change is economically sound and worth making the change.
Explain Resistance to change
- Some Lose
- Some Disagree
- Some Hate Change
Managing Change, 3 step process
- 1. Unfreezing - building concensus regarding the need to change
- 2. Moving/Changing - removing the obstacles to change
- 3. Refreezing - reinforcing the change
Unfreezing (3 approaches, least effective to most effective)
- You prove it to them
- Someone they respect believes it or
- They discover it on their own
Moving/Changing (how to remove the obstacles to change)
- Allies and Adversaries (know who supports you and who does not)
- Advocates (these people will lobby for you)
- Eliminating Excuses (overcome objections & obstacles)
- Irreversible Investments (key to showing you are serious)
Refreezing (reinforcing change)
- Performance metrics
- Building confidence
- Repetitive communication
What issues do you consider for the Unfreezing stage?
Is there awareness by those who need to implement the change that there is a problem? If not, how will you build consensus about the need to change?
What issues do you consider for the Moving/Changing stage?
- Who is likely to be supportive of the change?
- Who is likely to oppose the change?
- Who would be important advocates for this change effort?
- What are the obstacles to implementing the change?
- How can you show that you're serious about implementing this change?
What issues do you consider for the Refreezing stage?
- What incentives need to be adjusted?
- What performance metrics can be created?
- What short term successes or other confidence building measures can you leverage?
- What ways can you communicate a continuing commitment to the change effort?
Managing change participatively (6 steps)
- 1. Data collection
- 2. Feedback to the boss
- 3. Consensus about problems
- 4. Consensus about solutions
- 5. Celebration
- 6. Institutionalizing change
Change effort that failed:
a) If people try to implement change but give up, it is a __________ problem.
b) If they never try, it is a ___________ problem.
- a) refreezing problem
- b) unfreezing problem
What are the 5 bases of Power?
- Legitimate (supervisory)
- Reward (ability ot offer a 'carrot")
- Coercive (deny or inflict punishment)
- Expert (can be anywhere in the org)
- Referent (someone we seek approval from)
Who gets Power?
- Institutionalization (when the market shifts, this prevents shift in power)
- Do Favors (propose cooperative solutions)
- Get Points on the Scoreboard (get some tangible successes, establish expertise)
- Be Liked (make people want ot be cooperative with you, socially similar, develop rapport, etc)
- Change the Rules (develop new architecture or rules, make it easy to comply)
- Leverage Subordinates (leverage the power and connections of people working for you)
Vroom-Yetton model - Decision making options
- AI – autocratic; make the decision yourself
- AII – autocratic; Ask for information, then make decision yourself
- CI – consultative; Consult with subordinates individually
- CII – consultative; Consult with subordinates as a groupGII – group; Let the subordinates decide as a group
Choosing a decision making style
- If support from subordinates is important, consult with them (CI, CII, GII).
- If the problem is unstructured, meet in a group (CII, GII).
- If the best decision is likely to create conflict, meet in a group, but you decide (CII).
- If support is not important, the problem is structured, and conflict is unlikely, make the decision without consulting (AI, AII).
Advantages of Consultation
- More Information
- More Expertise
- More Commitment
Disadvantages of Consultation
- More Time & effort to consider other’s ideas
- More Money
- Resentment if Insincere
Issues in Designing Groups
- Size: Process vs. Content
- Heterogeneity vs. Homogeneity
- Group Rewards
- Developing Group Spirit (Goal Setting & Common Enemy)
- Circulating an Agenda
- Re-Stating the problem (be specific)
- Laundry Lists (indicates there was no discussion or debate)
- Railroading (GroupThink, if the decision is already made, announce it!)
- Bombarding (Dominates the discussion, people agree just to move on)
- Voting (Does not measure intensity of preference, consider reasons or alternatives)
Task Leader vs. Maintenance Leader
- Task Leaders are argumentative, coercive, just want to leave the meeting with a decision made. Task oriented, demanding. May win argument but not get point across to employees. If they don’t get point across will not improve.
- Maintenance Leaders are concerned about people voicing their opinion and participating, not the results of the meeting. They look for wasys to find value in what people say, despite how long it takes to come to agreement, they realize that implementaiton will be faster if everyone honestly buys-in.
List four attributes of Effective Teams
- Have a clear purpose
- Know the score
- Share in the success
- Have authority to act