411 Ch 12
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A region in mountainous areas above tree line that is characterized by dwarf plants; unlike arctic tundra, there is no permafrost.
A large terrestrial ecosystem that occurs on major regional subcontient area.
The curcumplar, sub arctic coniferous forest of high northern latitudes/ also known as taiga
The borad-leaved forest of the middle latitudes in which leaves are shed seasonally
Bush covered land of arid regions in which the plants are quite dispersed with much bare ground between them
Areas covered by vegetation dominated by grasses; referred to as steppes in Europe and Asia, llanos or pampas in South America
The accumulation of dead plant and animal matter on the soil surface.
Permanently frozen soil at a depth of a few centimeters to several meters and characteristic of tundra.
A tropical or subtropical grassland ecosystem
See boreal forest
The evergreen forests of the permanently wet tropics
A plain characterized by the absence of trees, the predominance of dwarfed plants, and an upper ground surface that is spongy and uneven.
411 Ch 12
Biomes and Human populations