Anthropology test 2

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Anthropology test 2
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Anthropology test 2
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  1. Define Unilineal Evolution
    The assertion that human societies evolved through one line of evolution. From primitive to complex.
  2. Lewis Henry Morgan
    Wrote the first Ethnography "The league of the Iriquois".
  3. Define Matrilineal
    The ignored relation between the Father and the care of the children. Morgan found this within the Iroquois.
  4. Define System of Consanguinity
    Morgans formulation of the distinction between classifictory and descriptive systems of kinship.
  5. Ancient society is categorized into what three aspects.
    • 1. Savagery
    • 2. Barbarism
    • 3. Civilization

    Cultures must evolve through these.
  6. Edward Burnett Tylor
    First person to define culture and make Anthropology a science.
  7. Define Social Evolution
    That societies evolve from Primitive to Complex.
  8. Define what Survivals are.
    Evidence of cultural evolutionary past.

    ex. Superstitions, etc.
  9. Evolution of Religion as seen in Unilineal Evolutionism.
    • Animism- Belief in existence of a soul
    • Ancestor Worship- worship of departed family.
    • Polytheism- Many gods
    • Monotheism- One god.
  10. James Frazier
    Researched folklore and focused on the notions of cause and effect. Defined the evolution of rationality, and found a pattern in magic. Wrote the Golden bough, A monumental study in comparative folklore, magic and religion, The Golden Bough shows parallels between the rites and beliefs, superstitions and taboos of early cultures and those of Christianity. It had a great impact on psychology and literature and remains an early classic anthropological resource.
  11. Problems with Unilineal Evolution
    Overrun with Ethnocentrism, is based on scant amount of ethnographic info., and based on the assertion that things changed everywhere in the world in the same way.
  12. Define Diffusionist
    • Sought to explain the similarities among cultures and the mechanism for cultural change.
    • Ex. Pyramids of Egypt vs. Central America-Diffused over??
  13. Define Kultelkreis
    Primeval culture complexes were identified, and their ideas then spread with modifications around the globe. Because of the Kultelkreis movement, anthropology died out in this country.
  14. Problems with Diffusionism
    • -Ignored the relevance of the environmental conditions.
    • -Racist undertones particularly in German versions.
  15. Define Functionalism
    Functionalists seek to describe the different parts of a society and their relationship through the organic analogy. The organic analogy compared the different parts of a society to the organs of a living organism. The organism was able to live, reproduce and function through the organized system of its several parts and organs. Like a biological organism, a society was able to maintain its essential processes through the way that the different parts interacted together
  16. Bronislaw Malinowski
    • Wrote first modern ethnography. Realized importance of participant observation. Created method of:
    • -Learn language
    • -Prolonged fieldwork
    • -participate
    • -observe
  17. According to Malinowski, culture has a function, what is it?
    It's function is it works to satisfy the basic need of the individual
  18. Malinowskis 7 Basic Needs:
    • Need Response
    • Metabolism Commissariat
    • Reproduction Kinship
    • Safety Protection
    • Movement Activities
    • Health Hygiene
    • Bodily Comforts Shelter
    • Growth Training
  19. Define Structural Functionalism
    Belief that culture functions to support the social structures of society
  20. Franz Boas
    Father of American Anthropology.
  21. Cultural Determinism
    That race, language, and culture are independent aspects of the human condition.
  22. Kwakiutl:
    • Consumer oriented society
    • Hunter/gatherer
    • Sedentary
    • Chiefdom
    • Traders
    • Secret societies
    • -Hamatra Dancers (cannibals)
    • -Fool Society
    • -Noble Society

    Forgiveness=Height of nobility
  23. Structuralism:
    That anthropology must look for the key features that structure the human mind.

    Not to be confused with structural functionalism.
  24. Claude Levi Strauss
    • Discovered the usage of Tropes, a figure of speech used to extend the categories for thinking.
    • Metaphor
    • Metonym
    • Synechdoche

    • Binary oppositions: a pair of terms or concepts that are theoretical opposites.
  25. Multi Lineal Evolutionism
    That human societies evolved in a variety of ways, depending on the environment in which you find them
  26. Leslie White
    Neo-Evolutionist that looked at culture as a general human phenomenon, and that social evolution should be viewed in terms of technological advancement.
  27. Julian Steward
    Multi Lineal evolutionist.

    Cultural Ecology: views the impact of the environment as the mechanism of the varieties of cultural diversity.
  28. Julian Steward
    • Culture cores: Societies with similar subsistence strategies live in similar environments.
    • -Bands
    • -Tribes
    • -Chiefdoms
    • -States
  29. Cultural Materialism
    Looks to the fundamental causes of cultural phenomenon
  30. Marvin Harris
    • Universal Pattern:
    • -Infrastructure
    • -mode of production
    • -mode of reproduction
    • -Structure
    • -social organization
    • -political organization
    • -Superstructure
    • -meaning
    • -religion
    • -personhood
    • -art
    • -etc.
  31. Interpritivism
    That anthropology doesn't need to be and can't be a science. The goal is to read and translate cultural understanding.
  32. Clifford Geertz
    • -Thick description
    • -Cultures are texts
    • -Cultural particularism
  33. Victor Turner
    -Ritual and community

    • Communities and Ritual:
    • -rites of passage have 3 stages
    • -Seperation
    • -Liminality
    • -Reincorporation
  34. Pierre Bordieu
    Stuctural Constructivism: recognizes the reality of binary oppositions as a social and political reality, not a universal pattern in the human mind.
  35. Social Practices
    Rules you are aware of following.
  36. Reflexivity
    • Recognition of biases and the production of Ethnographic knowledge.
    • -Political
    • -Cultural
    • -Gendered
    • -Class-oriented
  37. Linguistic Anthropology
    P.A.D.

    • Productive-the more sounds we use, the more meaning we gain
    • Arbitrary-is opinionated
    • Displacement-humans are able to talk about the not here and the not happening.
  38. Cognates
    Words that can be shown to have a common chronology.

    • Terre
    • Tierra
    • Terra
  39. Phonology
    The study of the sounds of speech
  40. Morphology
    The study of meaning.
  41. Morpheme
    The smallest part of an utterance that has a definite meaning
  42. Syntax
    Rules of how to put ideas together to make coherent statements
  43. Socio Linguistics
    Investigation of sounds and language as they are being used in a group of people.
  44. Speech community
    The real social unit within which speakers share a way of speaking.

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