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Name the four muscle types and their functions (four C's).
What are Dr. Evonuk's 6 Balances?
- Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide
What does I stand for in the feedback loop? Give an example.
- Input (any variable)
- ex: blood pressure, temp
What does R stand for in the feedback loop? What does it do?
- Receptor (sensor/transducer)
- Detects input
What does I' stand for in the feedback loop?
What does C stand for in the feedback loop?
Controller/error detection (with set point)
What does O stand for in the feedback loop?
What does E stand for in the feedback loop?
Effector (target organ or tissue)
What does Ef stand for in the feedback loop?
What does the triangle stand for in the feedback loop?
What is the difference between positive and negative feedback.
In negative feedback the change resists/opposses the input, while in positive feedback the change amplifies the input.
What is the purpose of negative feedback?
To maintain homiostatic balance.
What are some example of positive feedback?
- LH surge = ovulation
- oxytocin = uterine contraction
- blood clotting cascade
- cAMP cascade
- Cell - nucleus
- (contains organelles)
- Cell - nucleus and organelles (complex golgi liquid)
- Cytoplasm - organelles
What are 5 basic survival skills?
- 1. get food
- 2. use food
- 3. rid wastes
- 4. move
- 5. reproduce
What are the major functions of DNA?
Heredity and day-to-day cell functions.
Anatomy is to structure as physiology is to...
List all the organelles of the cell.
- Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Golgi Complex
Describe the stucture and function of the ER.
- Structure: Extensive, continuous membranous network of fluid-filled tubules and flat sacs, partially studded with ribosomes.
- Function: Forms new cell membrane an dother cell components and manufactures products for secretion.
Describe the stucture and function of the Golgi Complex.
- Structure: Sets of sacked, flat membranous sacs.
- Function: Modifies, packages, and distributes newly synthesized proteins.
Describe the stucture and function of Lysosomes.
- Structure: Membranous sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes.
- Function: Serve as digestive system of the cell, destroying foreign substances and cellular debris.
Describe the stucture and function of Peroxisomes.
- Structure: Membranous sacs containing oxidated enzymes.
- Function: Preform detoxification activities.
Describe the stucture and function of Mitochondria.
- Structure: Rod- or oval-shaped bodies enclosed by two membranes, with the inner membrane folded into cristae that projects into an interior matrix.
- Function: Act as energy organelles; major site of ATP production; contain enzymes for citric acid cycle and electron transport chain.
Describe the stucture and function of Vaults.
- Structure: Shaped like hollow octogonal barrels.
- Function: Serve as cellular trucks for transport from nucleus to cytoplasm.
Describe the stucture and function of the Plasma Membrane.
- Structure: Lipid bilayer studded with proteins and small amounts of carbohydrate.
- Function: Acts as selective barrier between cell contents and extracellular fluid; controls traffic in and out of the cell.
Describe the stucture and function of the Nucleus.
- Structure: DNA and specialized proteins enclosed by a double-layered membrane.
- Function: Acts as control center of the cell, providing storage of genetic info; nuclear DNA provides codes for the synthesis of structural and enzymatic proteins and serves as blueprint for cell replication.
Describe the stucture and function of Ribosomes.
- Structure: Granuels of RNA and proteins-some attached to rough ER, some free in the cytoplasm.
- Function: Serve as workbenches for protein synthesis.
Describe the stucture and function of Microtubules.
- Structure: Long, slender, hollow tubes composed of tubulin molecules.
- Function: Maintain asymmetric cell shapes and coordinate complex cell movements.
Describe the stucture and function of Microfilaments.
- Structure: Intertwined helical chains of actin molecules; microfilaments composed of myosin molecules also present in muscle cells.
- Function: Play a vital role in various cell contractile systems; serve as a mechanical stiffener for microcilli.
Describe the stucture and function of Intermediate Filaments.
- Structure: Irregular, threadlike proteins.
- Function: Help resist mechanical stress.
Where is the enzyme Catalase located and what is it's function?
- Location: Peroxisomes
- Function: Neutralizes toxin at production site (ex: peroxide)
Where are Cristae located, what is their structure, and what is their function?
- Location: Mitochondria
- Structure: Infolding shelves that project into the mitochondria.
- Function: Contain crucial proteins used to convert much of the energy in food into a usable form.
What is the difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic exercise?
Aerobic is with oxygen, while Anaerobic is without oxygen.
Where does Aerobic exercise take place?
In the mitochondria.
Where does Anaerobic exercise take place?
In the cytosol.
What are the two types of Anaerobic exercise and when do they occur?
- 1. Immediate/ATP-PC (0-15 seconds)
- 2. Glycolysis (1.5-3 minutes)
Describe the stucture of Organelles.
Membrane bound structure in a cell.
What makes up a nucleotide?
Sugar, Phosphate, and a Base.
What is the goal of Aerobic Metabolism?
To harvest electrons and "cash in" ATP energy.
Compare and contrast DNA and RNA.
- DNA: double stranded, deoxyribose (without oxygen), A-T-C-G, self replication (can copy itself), nucleus (and mitochondrion).
- RNA: single stranded, ribose (with oxygen), A-U-C-G, needs DNA to as a template for replication, cytoplasm (but nucleus origin), mRNA, tRNA, tRNA.
What happens during translation?
Ribosomes make proteins.
Structure gives rise to...