Flagellated, no axial filaments. Most are harmless.
Aerobic/microaerophilic, motile, helical/vibrioid
among most common causes of diarrheal illness in the US and other developed countries. May lead to septicemia. Acquired orally. Invades intestinal epithelia
responsible for >85% of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
Inhabit soil, water, plants and animals (moist areas). Motile, many pigments,metabolically active (many enzymes) but may use few of the common nutrients and grow on anything. Extremely invasive and toxigenic in compromised patients (weakened ability to resist infectious agents)
Legionellosis, Legionnaires disease (pneumonia-like). Many toxins. Spread by aerosols. Asymptomatic infections common in all age groups.
diplococci. Pathogenic species usually associated with leukocytes (neutrophils in particular).
gonorrhea. No capsule. Pili on virulent forms. Highly toxic LPS
found only in humans. Inhalation, pili attach, invasion to blood, fulminant infection,circulatory collapse, meningitis
Obligate parasites of animals (incl. humans). Often found intracellularly (survives phagocytosis). Transmitted by ingestion or passage through skin or mucous membranes.
chronic, and involves many tissues. Endotoxin mediated.
Undulant fever (Brucellosis)
Whooping cough, infant immunizations have been very effective. Respiratory transmission. Pertussis toxin and other toxins. Relatively non-invasive.
Tularemia (ulcers, necrotic lesions, fever, malaise). Entry through abrasions following animal contact, insect bite, ingestion or inhalation. Highly infectious and toxic. Rabbits.
natural habitat for most is intestinal tract.Some are normal flora and cause incidental disease; some are regularly pathogenic
Common intestinal inhabitant. UTI's and food poisoning (traveler's diarrhea); spread by fecal contamination. LPS and many other toxins (heat stable and labile toxins). Most common normal flora, u get from humans.
Common in many animals. Transmitted to humans by oral route. Enteric (typhoid) fever, bacteremias, and enterocolitis. Invasive (gut to blood) and toxigenic. Poop on hand -> ingestion. Typhoid mary.
Salmonella. Salmonellosis not as deadly as salmonella.
Humans only. Shigellosis (dysentery) and traveler's diarrhea. LPS, exotoxins, and enterotoxins (interfere with nutrient uptake). Appearance in blood is rare.
Normal flora of gut flora. Diseases similar to E. coli, and pediatric septicemia, pneumonias in the immunocompromised, esp. chronic alcoholism
Normally free-living. Very opportunistic. Nosocomial infections- UTI's and respiratory tract infections (RTI)
UTI's, wound infections, and infant diarrhea. Highly motile.
Many toxins. Multiply rapidly in blood and other tissues. Bubonic plague: Rats to Fleas to Humans. Pneumonic plague: Respiratory aerosols.
common inhabitants of soil, water, & animals.
Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes
UTI and sepsis.
curved rods (comma shapes). Among most common inhabitants of surface waters.
Cannot synthesize ATP. Persistent parasites. Blindness, respiratory disease, venereal disease.
No cell wall. Very small. Often normal flora of mouth, gut and urogenital tract. Can be intracellular parasites. Atypical pneumonia and urethritis, esp. in compromised host, post-partum disease. Toxigenic.