GN terms 3

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GN terms 3
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  1. Consensus sequence (TATAAT) found in most bacterial promoters approximately 10 bp upstream of the transcription start site
    -10 consensus sequence (Pribnow box)
  2. Consensus sequence (TTGACA) found in many bacterial promoters approximately 35 bp upstream of the transcription start site
    -35 consensus sequence
  3. 3' elongation
  4. End of the polynucleotide chain where an OH group is attached to the 3'-carbon atom of the nucleotide
    3' end
  5. The 3' end of an intron where cleavage takes place in RNA splicing
    3' splice site
  6. Sequence of nucleotides at the 3' end of mRNA; Does not encode the amino acids of a protein but affects both the stability of the mRNA and its translation
    3' untranslated (UTR) region
  7. Modified 5' end of eukaryotic mRNA, consisting of an extra nucleotide (methylated) and methylation of the 2' position of the ribose sugar in one or more subsequent nucleotides; Plays a role in the binding of the ribosome to mRNA and affects mRNA stability and the removal of introns
    5' cap
  8. End of the polynucleotide chain where a phosphate is attached to the 5'-carbon atom of the nucleotide
    5' end
  9. The 5' end of an intron where cleavage takes place in RNA splicing
    5' splice site
  10. Sequence of nucleotides at the 5' end of mRNA; Does not encode the amino acids of a protein
    5' untranslated (UTR) region
  11. Modified nucleotide, consisting of cytosine to which a methyl group has been added; Predominate form of methylation in eukaryotic DNA
    5-methylcytosine
  12. 11nm
  13. 30nm
  14. Initial complex formed in the initiation of translation in bacterial cells; Consists of the small subunit of the ribosome, mRNA, initiator tRNA charged w/ fMet, GTP, and initiation factors 1, 2 and 3
    30S initiation complex
  15. Final complex formed in the initiation of translation in bacterial cells; Consists of the small and large subunits of the ribosome, mRNA, and initiator tRNA charged w/ fMet
    70S initiation complex
  16. 300nm
  17. Right-handed helical structure of DNA that exists when little water is present
    A-DNA
  18. Process by which a specific environment induces mutations that enable organisms to adapt to the environment
    Adaptive mutation
  19. Purine base in DNA and RNA
    Adenine (A)
  20. One of several pathways by which a single pre-mRNA can be processed in different ways to produce alternative types of mRNA
    Alternative processing pathway
  21. Process by which a single pre-mRNA can be spliced in more than one way to produce different types of mRNA
    Alternative splicing
  22. Alu
  23. Test in which special trains of bacteria are used to evaluate the potential of chemicals to cause cancer
    Ames test
  24. Repeating unit of proteins; consists of an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable R group
    Amino acid
  25. One of 3 sites in a ribosome occupied by a rTNA in translation. All charged tRNAs (with the exception of the initiator tRNA) first enter the A site in translation
    Aminoacyl (A) site
  26. Enzyme that attaches an amino acid to a tRNA. Each __ is specific for a particular amino acid
    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
  27. Sequence of 3 nucleotides in tRNA that pairs with the corresponding codon in mRNA in translation
    Anticodon
  28. Refers to a characteristic of the DNA double helix in which the two polynucleotide strands run in opposite directions
    Antiparallel
  29. DNA sequence that confers the ability to replicate; contains an origin of replication
    Autonomously replicating sequence (ARS)
  30. Bacterium or fungus that possesses a nutritional mutation that disrupts its ability to synthesize an essential biological molecule; cannot grow on minimal medium but can grow on minimal medium to which has been added the biological molecule that it cannot synthesize
    Auxotroph
  31. Right-handed helical structure of DNA that exists when water is abundant; the secondary structure described by Watson and Crick and probably the most common DNA structure in cells
    B-DNA
  32. Complex of transcription factors, RNA polymerase, and other proteins that assemble on the promoter and are capable of initiating minimal levels of transcription
    Basal transcription apparatus
  33. Chemical substance that has a structure similar to that of one of the four standard bases of DNA and may be incorporated into newly synthesized DNA molecules in replication
    Base analog
  34. Mutation in which a single pair of bases in DNA is altered
    Base substitution
  35. DNA repair that first excises modified bases and then replaces the entire nucleotide
    Base-excision repair
  36. Replication at both ends of a replication bubble
    Bidirectional replication
  37. Adenine nucleotide in nuclear pre-mRNA intons that lies from 18 to 40 nucleotides upstram of the 3' splice site
    Branch point
  38. Haploid amount of DNA found in a cell of an organism
    C value
  39. CAAT
  40. Concept that genetic information passes from DNA to RNA to protein in a one-way information pathway
    Central dogma
  41. DNA sequence found in functional centromeres
    Centromeric sequence
  42. Rules developed by Erwin Chargaff and his colleagues concerning the ratios of bases in DNA
    Chargaff's Rules
  43. Consists of a nucleosome and an H1 histone protein
    Chromatosome
  44. Localized swelling of a polytene chromosome; a region of chromatin in which DNA has unwound and is undergoing transcription
    Chromosomal puff
  45. Protein that plays a role in the folding and packing of the chromosome, revealed when chromatin is treated with a concentrated salt solution, which removes histones and some other chromosomal proteins
    Chromosomal scaffold protein
  46. Cis-acting element
  47. Cistron
  48. Secondary structure common to all tRNAs
    Cloverleaf structure
  49. Sequence of 3 nucleotides that encodes one amino acid in a protein
    Codon
  50. Produced in replicative transposition, an intermediate structure in which two DNA molecules with two copies of the transposable element are fused
    Cointegrate structure
  51. Concept that there is a direct correspondence between the nucleotide sequence of a gene and the continuous sequence of amino acids in a protein
    Colinearity
  52. The relation between the two nucleotide strands of DNA in which each purine on one strand pairs with a specific pyrimidine on the opposite strand (A pairs with T, and G pairs with C)
    Complementary DNA strands
  53. Type of transposable element in bacteria that consists of two insertion sequences flanking a segment of DNA
    Composite transposon
  54. Expressed only under certain conditions
    Conditional mutation
  55. Comprises the most commonly encountered nucleotides found at a specific location in DNA or RNA
    Consensus sequence
  56. Conservative transposon
  57. Constitutive Heterochromatin
  58. Replication of the leading strand in the same direction as that of unwinding, allowing new nucleotides to be added continuously to the 3' end of the new strand as the template is exposed
    Continuous replication
  59. Part of the bacterial RNA polymerase that, during transcription, catalyzes the elongation of the RNA molecule by the addition of RNA nucleotides; consists of four subunits; two copies of alpha, a single copy of beta, and a single copy of beta prime
    Core enzyme
  60. Located immediately upstream of the eukaryotic promoter, DNA sequences to which the basal transcription apparatus binds
    Core promoter
  61. Pyrimidine base in DNA and RNA
    Cytosine (C)
  62. Loss of an amino group (NH2) from a base
    Deamination
  63. Refers to the fact that the genetic code contains more information than is needed to specify all 20 common amino acids
    Degenerate genetic code
  64. Mutation in which one or more nucleotides are deleted from a DNA sequence
    Deletion
  65. Long terminal repeat in Ty elements of yeast
    Delta sequence
  66. Process that separates the strands of double-stranded DNA when DNA is heated
    Denaturation (melting)
  67. Basic building block of DNA, consisting of deoxyribose, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
    Deoxyribonucleotide
  68. Five-carbon sugar in DNA; lacks a hydroxyl group on the 2'-carbon atom
    Deoxyribose
  69. Break in the covalent bond connecting a purine base to the 1'-carbon atom of deoxyribose, resulting in the loss of the purine base. The resulting apurinic site cannot provide a template in replication, and a nucleotide with another base may be incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA strand opposite the apurinic site
    Depurination
  70. DNA repair in which modified bases are changed back into their original structures
    Direct repair
  71. Replication of the lagging strand in the direction opposite that of unwinding, which means that DNA must be synthesized in short stretches (Okazaki fragments)
    Discontinuous replication
  72. DNA dependent DNA polymerase
  73. DNA dependent RNA polymerase
  74. E. coli topoisomerase enzyme that relieves the torsional strain that builds up ahead of the replication fork
    DNA gyrase
  75. Protein that unwinds double-stranded DNA by breaking hydrogen bonds
    DNA helicase
  76. Enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between adjacent 3'-OH and 5'-phosphate groups in a DNA molecule
    DNA ligase
  77. Modification of DNA by the addition of methyl groups to certain positions on the bases
    DNA methylation
  78. Enzyme that synthesizes DNA
    DNA polymerase
  79. Bacterial DNA polymerase that removes and replaces RNA primers with DNA nucleotides
    DNA polymerase I
  80. Bacterial DNA polymerase that takes part in DNA repair; Restarts replication after synthesis has halted because of DNA damage
    DNA polymerase II
  81. Bacterial DNA polymerase that synthesizes new nucleotide strands off the primers
    DNA polymerase III
  82. DNA sequence capable of moving from one site to another within the genome through a mechanism that differs from that of homologous recombination
    DNA transposon
  83. dNTP
  84. Protein that regenerates elongation factor Tu in the elongation stage of protein synthesis
    Elognation factor Ts (EF-Ts)
  85. Protein that combines with GTP and is required for movement of the ribosome along the mRNA during translation
    Elongation factor G (EF-G)
  86. Protein taking part in the elongation stage of protein synthesis; forms a complex with GTP and a charged amino acid and then delivers the charged tRNA to the ribosome
    Elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu)
  87. Endosymbiosis
  88. Sequence that stimulates maximal transcription of distant genes; affects only genes on the same DNA molecule (is cis acting), contains short consensus sequences, is not fixed in relation to the transcription start site, can stimulate almost any promoter in its vicinity, and may be upstream or downstream of the gene. The function is independent of sequence orientation
    Enhancer
  89. Method used to separate molecules or organelles of different density by centrifugation
    Equilibrium density gradient centrifugation
  90. Error correcting (Error checking)
  91. Chromatin that undergoes condensation and decondensation in the course of the cell cycle
    Euchromatin
  92. One of 3 sites in a ribosome occupied by a tRNA. In the elongation of translation, tRNA moves from the peptidyl (P) site to the E site from which it then exits the ribosome
    Exit (E) site
  93. Coding region of a split gene (a gene that is interrupted by introns). After processing, the __ remain in the messenger RNA
    Exon
  94. Mutation in which the number of copies of a trinucleotide (or some multiple of 3 nucleotides) increases in succeeding generations
    Expanding trinucleotide repeat
  95. Facultative Heterochromatin
  96. Short, directly repeated sequence produced on either side of a transposable element when the element inserts into DNA
    Flanking direct repeat
  97. Alters a wild-type phenotype
    Forward mutation
  98. Alters the reading frame of a gene
    Frameshift mutation
  99. Produces a new trait or causes a trait to appear in inappropriate tissues or at inappropriate times in development
    Gain-of-function mutation
  100. Process of nonreciprocal genetic exchange that can produce abnormal ratios of gametes following meiosis
    Gene conversion
  101. Set of genes similar in sequence that arose through repeated duplication events; often encode different proteins
    Gene family
  102. Affects a single gene or locus
    Gene mutation
  103. Protein that binds to eukaryotic promoters near the start site and is a part of the basal transcription apparatus that initiates transcription
    General transcription factor
  104. Mutation in a germ-line cell (one that gives rise to gametes)
    Germ-line Mutation
  105. Belongs to a class of introns in some ribosomal RNA genes that are capable of self-splicing
    Group I intron
  106. Belongs to a class of introns in some protein-encoding genes that are capable of self-splicing and are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and a few eubacteria
    Group II intron
  107. Purine base in DNA and RNA
    Guanine (G)
  108. RNA molecule that serves as a template for an alteration made in mRNA during RNA editing
    • Guide RNA
    • (gRNA)
  109. Secondary structure formed when sequences of nucleotides on the same strand are complementary and pair with each other
    Hairpin
  110. Chromatin that remains in a highly condensed state throughout the cell cycle; Found at the centromeres and telomeres of most chromosomes
    Heterochromatin
  111. DNA consisting of 2 strands, each of which is from a different chromosome
    Heteroduplex DNA
  112. DNA that consists of short sequences that are present in hundreds of thousands to millions of copies; clustered in certain regions of chromosomes
    Highly repetitive DNA
  113. Low-molecular-weight protein found in eukaryotes that complexes w/ DNA to form chromosomes
    Histone
  114. Model of homologous recombination that is initiated by single-strand breaks in a DNA molecule
    Holliday junction
  115. Complex of an enzyme and other protein factors necessary for complete function
    Holoenzyme
  116. Exchange of genetic information between homologous DNA molecules
    Homologous recombination
  117. Sudden appearance of numerous mutations, chromosome aberrations, and sterility in the offspring of a cross between a male fly that possesses P elements and a female fly that lacks them
    Hybrid dysgenesis
  118. Pairing of two partly or fully complementary single-stranded nucleotide chains
    Hybridization
  119. Deletion of some multiple of three nucleotides, which does not alter the reading frame of the gene
    In-frame deletion
  120. Insertion of some multiple of three nucleotides, which does not alter the reading frame of the gene
    In-frame insertion
  121. Incorporation of a damaged nucleotide or mismatched base pair into a DNA molecule
    Incorporated error
  122. Results from environmental agents, such as chemicals or radiation
    Induced mutation
  123. The codon in mRNA that specifies the first amino acid (fMet in bacterial cells; Met in eukaryotic cells) of a protein; most commonly AUG
    Initiation codon
  124. Protein required for the initiation of translation in bacterial cells; Enhances the dissociation of the large and small subunits of the ribosome
    Initiation factor 1 (IF-1)
  125. Protein required for the initiation of translation in bacterial cells; Forms a complex with GTP and the charged initiator protein and then delivers the charged tRNA to the initiation complex
    Initiation factor 2 (IF-2)
  126. Protein required for the initiation of translation in bacterial cells; Binds to the small subunit of the ribosome and prevents the large subunit from binding during initiation
    Initiation factor 3 (IF-3)
  127. Binds to an origin of replication and unwinds a short stretch of DNA, allowing helicase and other single-stranded binding proteins to bind and initiate replicaiton
    Initiator protein
  128. Mutation in which nucleotides are added to a DNA sequence
    Insertion
  129. Simple type of transposable element found in bacteria and their plasmids that contains only the information necessary for its own movement
    Insertion sequence (IS)
  130. Chemical substance that is about the same size as a nucleotide and may become sandwiched between adjacent bases in DNA, distorting the 3D structure of the helix and causing single-nucleotide insertions and deletions in replication
    Intercalating agent
  131. Occurs in a gene (locus) that is different from the gene containing the original mutation
    Intergenic suppressor mutation
  132. Located w/in the sequences of DNA that are transcribed into RNA
    Internal promoter
  133. Interspersed elements
  134. Repeated sequence at multiple locations throughout the genome
    Interspersed repeat sequence
  135. Occurs in the same gene (locus) as the mutation that it suppresses
    Intragenic suppressor mutation
  136. Intervening sequence in a split gene; Removed from the RNA after transcription
    Intron
  137. Different tRNAs w/ different anticodons that specify the same amino acid
    Isoaccepting tRNAs
  138. Different forms of an element that have the same number of protons and electrons but differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus
    Isotope
  139. L1
  140. DNA strand that is replicated discontinuously
    Lagging strand
  141. The larger of the 2 subunits of a functional ribosome
    Large ribosomal subunit
  142. Looplike structure created in the splicing of nuclear pre-mRNA in which the 5' end of an intron is attached to a branch point in pre-mRNA
    Lariat
  143. DNA strand that is replicated continuously
    Leading strand
  144. Causes premature death
    Lethal mutation
  145. Stretch of DNA separating two nucleosomes
    Linker DNA
  146. Long DNA sequence repeated many times and interspersed throughout the genome
    Long interspersed element (LINE)
  147. Causes the complete or partial absence of normal function
    Loss-of-function mutation
  148. Matrix attachment regions
  149. Midpoint of the melting range of DNA
    Melting temperature (Tm)
  150. RNA molecule that carries genetic information for the amino acid sequence of a protein
    • Messenger RNA
    • (mRNA)
  151. Small RNAs, typically 21 or 22 bp in length, that are produced by cleavage of double-stranded RNA arising from small hairpins w/in RNA that is mostly single stranded. The __ combine w/ proteins to form a complex that binds (imperfectly) to mRNA molecules and inhibits their translation
    • MicroRNA
    • (miRNA)
  152. Process that corrects mismatched nucleotides in DNA after replication has been completed. Enzymes excise incorrectly paired nucleotides from the newly synthesized strand and use the original nucleotide strand as a template when replacing them
    Mismatch repair
  153. Alters a codon in the mRNA, resulting in a different amino acid in the protein encoded
    Missense mutation
  154. Mitochondrial Eve
  155. DNA consisting of sequences that are from 150 to 300 bp in length and are repeated thousands of times
    Moderately repetitive DNA
  156. Rare base found in some RNA molecules. Such bases are modified forms of the standard bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil)
    Modified base
  157. Molecule that assists in the proper folding of another molecule
    Molecular chaperone
  158. Mechanisms for the detection and elimination of mRNAs that contain errors that may create problems in the course of translation
    mRNA surveillance
  159. Refers to the presence of more than one 3' cleavage site on a single pre-mRNA, which allows cleavage and polyadenylation to take place at different sites, producing mRNAs of different lengths
    Multiple 3' cleavage sites
  160. Any environmental agent that significantly increases the rate of mutation above the spontaneous rate
    Mutagen
  161. Heritable change in genetic information
    Mutation
  162. Frequency w/ which a gene changes from the wild type to a specific mutant; Generally expressed as the number of mutations per biological unit (that is, mutations per cell division, per gamete, or per round of replication
    Mutation rate
  163. Coiled tertiary structure that forms when strain is placed on a DNA helix by underwinding of the helix
    Negative supercoiling
  164. Changes the amino acid sequence of a protein but does not alter the function of the protein
    Neutral mutation
  165. Nitrogen-containing base that is one of the three parts of a nucleotide
    Nitrogenous base
  166. One of a heterogeneous assortment of nonhistone proteins in chromatin
    Nonhistone chromosomal protein
  167. Refers to the fact that, generally, each nucleotide is a part of only one codon and encodes only one amino acid in a protein
    Nonoverlapping genetic code
  168. Type of transposition in which a transposable element excises from an old site and moves to a new site, resulting in no net increase in the number of copies of the transposable element
    Nonreplicative transposition
  169. Changes in a sense codon (one that specifies an amino acid) in to a stop codon
    Nonsense mutation
  170. Process that brings about the rapid elimination of mRNA that has a premature stop codon
    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)
  171. Mechanism in eukaryotic cells for dealing w/ ribosomes stalled at the 3' end of an mRNA that lacks a termination codon. A protein binds to the A site of the stalled ribosome and recruits other proteins that degrade the mRNA from the 3' end
    Nonstop mRNA decay
  172. The DNA strand that is complementary to the template strand; not ordinarily used as a template during transcription
    Nontemplate strand
  173. Belongs to a class of introns in protein-encoding genes that reside in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells; removed by spliceosomeal-mediated splicing
    Nuclear pre-mRNA intron
  174. Bacterial DNA confined to a definite region of the cytoplasm
    Nucleoid
  175. Ribose or deoxyribose bonded to a base
    Nucleoside
  176. Basic repeating unit of chromatin, consisting of a core of eight histone proteins (two of each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) and about 146 bp of DNA that wraps around the core about two times
    Nucleosome
  177. Repeating unit of DNA and RNA made up of a sugar, a phosphate, and a base
    nucleotide
  178. DNA repair that removes bulky DNA lesions and other types of DNA damage
    Nucleotide-excision repair
  179. Short stretch of newly synthesized DNA. Produced by discontinuous replication on the lagging strand, these fragments are eventually joined together
    Okazaki fragment
  180. Idea proposed by Beadle and Tatum that each gene encodes a separate enzyme
    One gene, one enzyme hypothesis
  181. Modification of the one gene, one enzyme hypothesis; Proposes that each gene encodes a separate polypeptide chain
    One gene, one polypeptide hypothesis
  182. Ori
  183. OriH
  184. OriL
  185. Chemical bond that connects amino acids in a protein
    Peptide bond
  186. One of three sites in a ribosome occupied by a tRNA in translation. In the elongation stage of protein synthesis, tRNAs move from the aminoacyl (A) site into the __
    Peptidyl (P) site
  187. A phosphorous atom attached to four oxygen atoms; one of three components of a nucleotide
    Phosphate group
  188. Phosphodiester bond connecting two nucleotides in a polynucleotide strand
    Phosphodiester linkage
  189. Small RNA molecule belonging to a class named after Piwi proteins w/ which these molecules interact; Similar to microRNAs and small interfering RNAs and thought to have a role in the regulation of sperm development
    • Piwi-interacting RNA
    • (piRNA)
  190. String of adenine nucleotides added to the 3' end of a eukaryotic mRNA after transcription
    Poly(A) tail
  191. Single bacterial RNA molecule that encodes more than one polypeptide chain; uncommon in eukaryotes
    Polycistronic mRNA
  192. Series of nucleotides linked together by phosphodiester bonds
    Polynucleotide strand
  193. Chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; Also called a protein
    Polypeptide
  194. Messenger RNA molecule with several ribosomes attached to it
    Polyribosome
  195. Giant chromosome in the salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster. Each polytene chromosome consists of a number of DNA molecules lying side by side
    Polytene chromosome
  196. Coiled tertiary structure that forms when strain is placed on a DNA helix by overwinding of the helix
    Positive supercoiling
  197. Eukaryotic RNA molecule that is modified after transcription to become mRNA
    • Pre-messenger RNA
    • (pre-mRNA)
  198. Enzyme that synthesizes a short stretch of RNA on a DNA template; Functions in replication to provide a 3'-OH group for the attachment of a DNA molecule
    Primase
  199. Short stretch of RNA on a DNA template; Provides a 3'-OH group for the attachment of a DNA nucleotide at the initiation of replication
    Primer
  200. DNA sequence to which the transcription apparatus binds so as to initiate transcription; Indicates the direction of transcription, which of the 2 DNA strands is to be read as the template, and the starting point of transcription
    Promoter
  201. Ability of DNA polymerases to remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides in the course of replication
    Proofreading
  202. The part of mRNA consisting of the nucleotides that specify the amino acid sequence of a protein
    Protein-coding reion
  203. Type of nitrogenous base in DNA and RNA. Adenine and guanine are __
    Purine
  204. Type of nitrogenous base in DNA and RNA. Cytosine, thymine, and uracil are __
    Pyrimidine
  205. Structure in which a bond forms between two adjacent pyrimidine molecules on the same strand of DNA; Disrupts normal hydrogen bonding between complementary bases and distorts the normal configuration of the DNA molecule
    Pyrimidine dimer
  206. Particular way in which a nucleotide sequence is read in groups of 3 nucleotides (codons) in translation. Each __ begins with a start codon and ends w/ a stop codon
    Reading frame
  207. DNA sequence located immediately upstream of the core promoter that affects transcription; Contains consensus sequences to which transcriptional activator proteins bind
    Regulatory promoter
  208. Energy state of a DNA molecule when there is no structural strain on the molecule
    Relaxed state of DNA
  209. Protein required for the termination of transcription; Binds to a ribosome when a stop codon is reached and stimulates the release of the polypeptide chain, the tRNA, and the mRNA from the ribosome
    Release factor (RF1, RF2, RF3)
  210. The process by which two complementary single-stranded DNA molecules pair
    Renaturation (reannealing)
  211. Sequences that exist in multiple copies in a genome
    Repetitive DNA
  212. Process by which DNA is synthesized from a single-stranded nucleotide template
    Replication
  213. Segment of DNA molecule that is unwinding and undergoing replication
    Replication bubble
  214. Replication of an incorporated error in which a change in the DNA sequence has been replicated and all base pairings in the new DNA molecule are correct
    Replication error
  215. Point at which a double-stranded DNA molecule separates into two single strands that serve as templates for replication
    Replication fork
  216. Protein that ensures that replication takes place only once at each origin; Required at the origin before replication can be initiated and removed after the DNA has been replicated
    Replication licensing factor
  217. Sequence of nucleotides where replication is initiated
    Replication origin
  218. Type of transposition in which a copy of the transposable element moves to a new site while the original copy remains at the old site; Increases the number of copies of the transposable element
    Replicative transposition
  219. Replicative transposon
  220. Unit of replication, consisting of DNA from the origin of replication to the point at which replication on either side of the origin ends
    Replicon
  221. Enzyme required for some types of transposition; Brings about resolution- that is, crossing over between sites located w/in the transposable element. __ may be encoded by the transposable element or by a cellular enzyme that normally functions in homologous recombination
    Resolvase
  222. Type of transposable element in eukaryotic cells that possesses some characteristics of retroviruses and transposes through an RNA intermediate
    Retrotransposon
  223. Mutation that changes a mutant phenotype back into the wild type
    Reverse mutation (reversion)
  224. Synthesis of DNA from an RNA template
    Reverse transcription
  225. Subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase that facilitates the termination of transcription of some genees
    Rho factor
  226. Sequence in bacterial DNA that requires the presence of the rho subunit of RNA polymerase to terminate transcription
    Rho-dependent terminator
  227. Sequence in bacterial DNA that does not require the presence of the rho subunit of RNA polymerase to terminate transcription
    Rho-independent terminator
  228. Substrate of RNA synthesis; Consists of ribose, a nitrogenous base, and 3 phosphates linked to the 5'-carbon atom of the ribose. In transcription, 2 of the phosphates are cleaved, producing an RNA nucleotide
    Ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP)
  229. Nucleotide containing ribose; present in RNA
    Ribonucleotide
  230. 5 carbon sugar in RNA
    Ribose
  231. RNA molecule that is a structural component of the ribosome
    • Ribosomal RNA
    • (rRNA)
  232. RNA molecule that can act as a biological catalyst
    Ribozyme
  233. RNA dependent DNA polymerase
  234. RNA dependent RNA polymerase
  235. Process in which the protein-coding sequence of an mRNA is altered after transcription. The amino acids specified by the altered mRNA are different from those predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the protein
    RNA editing
  236. Process in which cleavage of double-stranded RNA produces small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that bind to mRNAs containing complementary sequences and bring about their cleavage and degradation
    RNA interference (RNAi)
  237. Enzyme that synthesizes RNA from a DNA template during transcription
    RNA polymerase
  238. Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes large ribosomal RNA molecules (18 S rRNA and 28 S rRNA)
    RNA polymerase I
  239. Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes pre-messenger RNA, some small nuclear RNAs, and some microRNAs
    RNA polymerase II
  240. Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes transfer RNA, small ribosomal RNAs (5 S rRNA), some small nuclear RNAs, and some microRNAs
    RNA polymerase III
  241. Transcribes small interfering RNAs in plants
    RNA polymerase IV
  242. Process in some viruses by which RNA is synthesized from an RNA template
    RNA replication
  243. Process by which introns are removed and exons are joined together
    RNA splicing
  244. Sequence of DNA nucleotides that encodes an RNA molecule
    RNA-coding region
  245. Combination of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecule or a microRNA (miRNA) molecule and proteins that can cleave mRNA, leading to the degradation of the mRNA, or affect transcription or repress translation of the mRNA
    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)
  246. Replication of circular DNA that is initiated by a break in one of the nucleotide strands, producing a double-stranded circular DNA molecule and a single-stranded linear DNA molecule, the latter of which may circularize and serve as a template for the synthesis of a complementary strand
    Rolling-circle replication
  247. Replication in which the two nucleotide strands of DNA separate, each serving as a template for the synthesis of a new strand. All DNA replication is __
    Semiconservative replication
  248. Codon that specifies an amino acid in a protein
    Sense codon
  249. Consensus sequence found in the bacterial 5' untranslated region of mRNA; Contains the ribosome-binding site
    Shine-Dalgarno sequence
  250. Short DNA sequence repeated many times and interspersed throughout the genome
    Short interspersed element (SINE)
  251. Subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase that allows the RNA polymerase to recognize a promoter and initiate transcription
    Sigma factor
  252. From 15 to 30 amino acids that are found at the amino end of some eukaryotic proteins and direct the protein to specific locations in the cell; Usually cleaved from the protein
    Signal sequence
  253. Change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA that does not alter the amino acid sequence of a protein
    Silent mutation
  254. Binds to single-stranded DNA in replication and prevents it from annealing w/ a complementary strand and forming secondary structures
    Single-strand-binding protein (SSB)
  255. Small RNA molecule found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
    • Small cytoplasmic RNA
    • (scRNA)
  256. Single-stranded RNA molecule (usually from 21-25 nucleotides in length) produced by the cleavage and processing of double-stranded RNA; Binds to complementary sequences in mRNA and brings about the cleavage and degradation of the mRNA. Some __ bind to complementary sequences in DNA and bring about their methylation
    • Small interfering RNA
    • (siRNA)
  257. Structure found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells that consists of small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and proteins; Functions in the processing of pre-mRNA
    • Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein
    • (snRNP)
  258. Small RNA molecule found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells; Functions in the processing
    • Small nuclear RNA
    • (snRNA)
  259. Small RNA molecule found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells; Function in the processing of rRNA and in the assembly of ribosomes
    • Small nucleolar RNA
    • (snoRNA)
  260. The smaller of the two subunits of a functional ribosome
    Small ribosomal subunit
  261. Mutation in a cell that does not give rise to a gamete
    Somatic mutation
  262. System of proteins and enzymes that allow a cell to replicate its DNA in the presence of a distortion in DNA structure; Makes numerous mistakes in replication and increases the rate of mutation
    SOS system
  263. Large complex consisting of several RNAs and many proteins that splices protein-encdoding pre-mRNA; Contains 5 small ribonucleoprotein particles (U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6)
    Spliceosome
  264. Arises spontaneously from natural changes in DNA structure or from errors in replication
    Spontaneous mutation
  265. Codon in mRNA that signals the end of translation. The 3 common __ are UAA, UAG, and UGA
    Stop (termination or nonsense) codon
  266. Slipping of the template and newly synthesized strands in replication in which one of the strands loops out from the other and nucleotides are inserted or delete on the newly synthesized strand
    Strand slippage
  267. Coiled tertiary structure that forms when strain is placed on a DNA helix by overwinding or underwinding of the helix
    Supercoiling
  268. Hides or suppresses the effect of another mutation at a site that is distinct from the site of the original mutation
    Suppressor mutation
  269. Different codons that specify the same amino acid
    Synonymous codons
  270. DNA sequences repeated one after another; tend to be clustered at specific locations on a chromosome
    Tandem repeat sequence
  271. Consensus sequence (TATAAAA) commonly found in eukaryotic RNA polymerase II promoters; Usually located from 25-30 bp upstream of the transcription start site. The __ determines the start point for transcription
    TATA box
  272. Polypeptide chain found in several different transcription factors that recognizes and binds to sequences in eukaryotic promoters
    TATA-binding protein (TBP)
  273. Enzyme that is made up of both protein and RNA and replicates the ends (telomeres) of eukaryotic chromosomes. The RNA part of the enzyme has a template that is complementary to repeated sequences in the telomere and pairs w/ them, providing a template for the synthesis in the telomere and pairs w/ them, providing a template for the synthesis of additional copies of the repeats
    Telomerase
  274. Sequence found at the end of a chromosome next to the telomeric sequence; Consists of relatively long, complex repeated sequences
    Telomere-associated sequence
  275. Sequence found at the ends of a chromosome; Consists of many copes of short, simple sequences repeated one after the other
    Telomeric sequence
  276. The strand of DNA that is used as a template during transcription. The RNA synthesized during transcription is complementary and antiparallel to the __
    Template strand
  277. Sequences found at both ends of a transposable element that are inverted complements of one another
    Terminal inverted repeat
  278. Sequence of DNA nucleotides that causes the termination of transcription
    Terminator
  279. Replication of circular DNA that is initiated by the unwinding of the 2 nucleotide strands, producing a replication bubble. Unwinding continues at one or both ends of the bubble, making it progressively larger. DNA replication on both of the template strands is simultaneous w/ unwinding until the 2 replication forks meet
    Theta replication
  280. Pyrimidine base in DNA but not in RNA
    Thymine (T)
  281. Enzyme that adds or removes rotations in a DNA helix by temporarily breaking nucleotide strands; Controls the degree of DNA supercoiling
    Topoisomerase
  282. Trans-acting factor
  283. The process of splicing together exons from two or more pre-mRNAs
    Trans-splicing
  284. Process by which RNA is synthesized from a DNA template
    Transcription
  285. Sequence of nucleotides in DNA that encodes a single RNA molecule, along w/ the sequences necessary for its transcription; Normally contains a promoter, an RNA-coding sequence, and a terminator
    Transcription unit
  286. Protein in eukaryotic cells that binds to consensus sequences in regulatory promoters or enhancers and affects transcription initiation by stimulating or inhibiting the assembly of the basal transcription apparatus
    Transcriptional activator protein
  287. RNA molecule that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and transfers it to a growing polypeptide chain in translation
    • Transfer RNA
    • (tRNA)
  288. Belongs to a class of introns in tRNA genes. The splicing of these genes relies on enzymes
    Transfer RNA intron
  289. An RNA molecule that has properties of both mRNA and tRNA; Functions in rescuing ribosomes that are stalled at the end of mRNA
    Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)
  290. Substance responsible for transformation. DNA is the transforming principle
    Transforming principle
  291. Base substitution in which a purine is replaced by a different purine or pyrimidine is replaced by a different pyrimidine
    Transition
  292. Process by which a protein is assembled from information contained in the messenger RNA
    Translation
  293. Movement of a chromosome segment to a nonhomologous chromosome or to a region w/in the same chromosome. Also, movement of a ribosome along mRNA in the course of translation
    Translocation
  294. DNA sequence capable of moving from one site to another w/in the genome through a mechanism that differs from that of homologous recombination
    Transposable element
  295. Enzyme encoded by many types of transposable elements that is required for their transposition. The enzyme makes single-strand breaks at each end of the transposable element an on either side of the target sequence where the element inserts
    Transposase
  296. Movement of a transposable genetic element from one site to another. Replicative __ increases the number of copies of the transposable element; Nonreplicative __ does not increase the number of copies
    Transposition
  297. Base substitution in which a purine is replaced by a pyrimidine or a pyrimidine is replaced by a purine
    Transversion
  298. Triphosphates
  299. Chemical reaction in which an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase attaches an amino acid to its corresponding tRNA
    tRNA charging
  300. Creates a modified base in RNA by catalyzing a chemical change in the standard base
    tRNA-modifying enzyme
  301. Misalignment of the two DNA molecules during crossing over, resulting in one DNA molecule w/ an insertion and the other w/ a deletion
    Unequal crossing over
  302. Sequence present only once or a few times in a genome
    Unique-sequence
  303. Refers to the fact that particular codons specify the same amino acids in almost all organisms
    Universal genetic code
  304. Consensus sequence found in some bacterial promoters that contains a number of A-T pairs and is found about 40 to 60 bp upstream of the transcription start site
    Upstream element
  305. Pyrimidine base in RNA but not normally in DNA
    Uracil (U)
  306. Base pairing between codon and anticodon in which there is nonstandard pairing, usually at the third (3') position of the codon; Allows more than one codon to pair w/ same anticodon
    Wobble
  307. Method for analyzing the 3D shape and structure of chemical substances. Crystals of a substance are bombarded w/ X-rays, which hit the crystals, bounce off, and produce a diffraction pattern on a detector. The pattern of the spots produced on the detector provides info about the molecular structure
    X-ray diffraction
  308. Secondary structure of DNA characterized by a gene or genes on the Y chromosome
    Z-DNA

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