AP euro ch 16 IDs

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AP euro ch 16 IDs
2010-10-25 02:51:06
ap european history identifications

ap european history: ch 16 identifications
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  1. sovereignty
    • monarchial power - someone possesses monopoly over instruments of justice and uses force within clearly defined boundaries.
    • aristocracy/lords don't present threat b/c army is stronger.
  2. absolutism
    • kings rule by DIVINE RIGHT (responsible to god alone)
    • - became legislators
    • - sovereignty was embodied in the person of the king
    • - controlled competing jurisdictions, institutions, interest groups
    • - maintained standing armies: peacetime AND wartime
  3. totalitarianism
    • 20th century phenomenon: direct all facets of state's culture (art, ed, religion, ec, politics) in interest of the state
    • total regulation: ruler sought exaltation
  4. cardinal richelieu
    • appointed by Marie de'Medici to council of ministers
    • became president of minister then minister of French crown
    • STRONG influence over King LOuis XIII to exalt F. monarchy
    • set cornerstone for F. absolutism --> policyo f total subordination of all groups/institutions
  5. Raison d'Etat
    • Richelieu dev. this, meaning "reason of state"
    • where interests of the state are concerned, God absolves actions which if private committed, would be a crime
  6. Fronde
    • name for CIVIL WARS from 1648-53
    • Richelieu's successor=Cardinal Mazarin, who cont. centralizing policies but his attempts to increase royal vanues led to war
    • Frondeurs=anyone who opposed policies of gov't
    • results: governments needs to compromise w/social elites, F. economy=disrupted, traumatic effect on Louis XIV
  7. French classicism
    • art and literature age of Louis XIV's reign
    • artists/writers imitated subject manner/style of classics to resemble Renaissance
    • music/theater
    • "sun king"
    • F. monarchy reached peak of absolutist dev.
    • Court-magnificence
    • -relationship w/nobility: complete domestication
    • - Versailles: beautiful palace
    • - tax base: increased military taxation, granted nobility privileged status and increased access to his person with enormous patronage
  9. Colbert's mercantilism
    • dev. by Colbert, the controller of general finances
    • nation's international power based on wealth, especially bullion (GOLD SUPPLY)
    • resources-limited, so state intervention necessary to secure largest part of limited resource
    • wanted France to be self sufficient-->abolished many domestic tariffs and enacted high foreign tariffs
  10. Revocation of edict of nantes
    • absolutist state attempted to control religion, so 1685 Louis XIV revoked EDICT OF NANTES (garnting liberty of conscience to F. Huguenots).
    • new law ordered destruction of churches, closing of schools, catholic baptism of Huguenots, and exile of pastors that refused to renounce previous faith
  11. War of spanish succession
    • fought principally between Spanish, Britain, HRE, Portugal
    • changed euro. balance of power
    • ended w/ Peace of Utrecht
    • concluded 1713
    • Philip remained 1st Bourbon king of Spain, knowing F. + S. would never be united
    • F. surrendered New Foundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson Bay
    • Represented balane of power principle, setting limits on extent to which any power could expand
  13. Don Quixote
    • novel by Spanish CERVANTES.
    • great masterpiece, deliniating 16th c. society.
    • Quixote lives in a world of dreams
  14. constitutionalism
    • limitation of gov't by law
    • implies balance between authority and rights/liberties of subjects
    • not same as democracy
    • c. dev. 17th c
  15. James I of England
    • well educated, but lacked common touch
    • poor character and too devoted to theory of divine right of kings - wrote "Tree law of Free Monarchy," and had conflict w/ House of Commons, lecturing them that he had total jurisdiction -- a mistake
  16. Puritans
    • believed Reformation didn't go far enough
    • wanted to abolish bishops in Church of England
    • James said "no bishops, no king"
  17. Long Parliament
    sat from 1640-1660, proceeding to enact legislation that limited power of monarchy to make arbitrary gov't possible. Parliament believed consent amounted to arbitrary/absolute depositism
  18. Thomas Hobbes
    • English philosopher/political theorist
    • wrote LEVIATHAN, maintaining sovereignty is ultimately derived form the people, who transfer it to the monarch by implicit conntract
    • king does NOT hold divine right --> controversial!
  19. commonwealth
    • aka republican gov't
    • enacted when Charles I beheaded, theoretically legislative power rested in surviving membesr of Parliament, and executive lodged in council of state
  20. Oliver CROMWELL
    • controlled army/constituted military dictatorship
    • favored toleraion
    • treated Ireland mercilessly
    • economic policy: English ships must be transported on English ships to boost English economy
  21. restoration
    • 1660 re-established monarchy in person of Charles Ii
    • both houses of Parliament restored, and est. Anglican church
    • failed to solve 2 problems:
    • attitude of state towards Puritans, Catholics, dissenters
    • constitutional position of the king?
  22. James II
    • violated test act
    • appointed Roman Catholics to positions in army and local gov't
    • issued decl. of indulgence granting religious freedom to all
  23. Glorious revolution
    • 1688-1689
    • Fear of Roman Catholic monarchy supported by France and ruling outside law
    • James II/queen/son fled to France and become pensioners to Louis XIV
    • william + mary crowned king/queen of England
    • glorious because of min.bloodshed
    • BILL OF RIGHTS written
  24. English bill of rights
    • men wrote that brought about Glorious Revolution
    • formulated response to Stuart absolutism
    • judges hold offices "during good behavior"
    • granted subjects (protestants) arms for their defense
    • Parliament had to be called every 3 years at least
  25. John Locke
    • political philosopher than defended gloriosu revolution
    • SECOND TREATISE OF CIVIL GOV'T: maintained people set up civil gov'ts to protect life, liberty, and property
    • gov't overteps this --> tyranny b/c of lack of natural rights
    • linked ecomomic liberty/private property to political freedom
  26. cabinet system
    • gov't evolved during 18th c.
    • small private room in which English rulers consulted chief ministers
    • leading ministers, who have seats in support of a majority of the House of Commons, formualte common policy and conduct business of country
  27. states general
    • Federal assembly that handled matters of foreign affairs
    • did NOT possess sovereign authority
    • appointed a rep in each province
    • Stadholders, the representative,carried out ceremonical functions
  28. Dutch East India co.
    • 1602 group of regents of Holland formed this, a joint stock company
    • investors each received a percent of profits proportional to amount of money put in
    • cut heavily into Portuguese trading in East Asia
    • seized cape of good hope, ceylon, and Malacca, est. trading posts in each
    • 1630s it was paying investors 35% annual return
    • traded extensively w/Latin Am. + Africa
    • **brought Dutch huge wealth/high standard of living