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- monarchial power - someone possesses monopoly over instruments of justice and uses force within clearly defined boundaries.
- aristocracy/lords don't present threat b/c army is stronger.
- kings rule by DIVINE RIGHT (responsible to god alone)
- - became legislators
- - sovereignty was embodied in the person of the king
- - controlled competing jurisdictions, institutions, interest groups
- - maintained standing armies: peacetime AND wartime
- 20th century phenomenon: direct all facets of state's culture (art, ed, religion, ec, politics) in interest of the state
- total regulation: ruler sought exaltation
- appointed by Marie de'Medici to council of ministers
- became president of minister then minister of French crown
- STRONG influence over King LOuis XIII to exalt F. monarchy
- set cornerstone for F. absolutism --> policyo f total subordination of all groups/institutions
- Richelieu dev. this, meaning "reason of state"
- where interests of the state are concerned, God absolves actions which if private committed, would be a crime
- name for CIVIL WARS from 1648-53
- Richelieu's successor=Cardinal Mazarin, who cont. centralizing policies but his attempts to increase royal vanues led to war
- Frondeurs=anyone who opposed policies of gov't
- results: governments needs to compromise w/social elites, F. economy=disrupted, traumatic effect on Louis XIV
- art and literature age of Louis XIV's reign
- artists/writers imitated subject manner/style of classics to resemble Renaissance
- "sun king"
- F. monarchy reached peak of absolutist dev.
- -relationship w/nobility: complete domestication
- - Versailles: beautiful palace
- - tax base: increased military taxation, granted nobility privileged status and increased access to his person with enormous patronage
- dev. by Colbert, the controller of general finances
- nation's international power based on wealth, especially bullion (GOLD SUPPLY)
- resources-limited, so state intervention necessary to secure largest part of limited resource
- wanted France to be self sufficient-->abolished many domestic tariffs and enacted high foreign tariffs
Revocation of edict of nantes
- absolutist state attempted to control religion, so 1685 Louis XIV revoked EDICT OF NANTES (garnting liberty of conscience to F. Huguenots).
- new law ordered destruction of churches, closing of schools, catholic baptism of Huguenots, and exile of pastors that refused to renounce previous faith
War of spanish succession
- fought principally between Spanish, Britain, HRE, Portugal
- changed euro. balance of power
- ended w/ Peace of Utrecht
PEACE OF UTRECHT
- concluded 1713
- Philip remained 1st Bourbon king of Spain, knowing F. + S. would never be united
- F. surrendered New Foundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson Bay
- Represented balane of power principle, setting limits on extent to which any power could expand
- novel by Spanish CERVANTES.
- great masterpiece, deliniating 16th c. society.
- Quixote lives in a world of dreams
- limitation of gov't by law
- implies balance between authority and rights/liberties of subjects
- not same as democracy
- c. dev. 17th c
James I of England
- well educated, but lacked common touch
- poor character and too devoted to theory of divine right of kings - wrote "Tree law of Free Monarchy," and had conflict w/ House of Commons, lecturing them that he had total jurisdiction -- a mistake
- believed Reformation didn't go far enough
- wanted to abolish bishops in Church of England
- James said "no bishops, no king"
sat from 1640-1660, proceeding to enact legislation that limited power of monarchy to make arbitrary gov't possible. Parliament believed consent amounted to arbitrary/absolute depositism
- English philosopher/political theorist
- wrote LEVIATHAN, maintaining sovereignty is ultimately derived form the people, who transfer it to the monarch by implicit conntract
- king does NOT hold divine right --> controversial!
- aka republican gov't
- enacted when Charles I beheaded, theoretically legislative power rested in surviving membesr of Parliament, and executive lodged in council of state
- controlled army/constituted military dictatorship
- favored toleraion
- treated Ireland mercilessly
- economic policy: English ships must be transported on English ships to boost English economy
- 1660 re-established monarchy in person of Charles Ii
- both houses of Parliament restored, and est. Anglican church
- failed to solve 2 problems:
- attitude of state towards Puritans, Catholics, dissenters
- constitutional position of the king?
- violated test act
- appointed Roman Catholics to positions in army and local gov't
- issued decl. of indulgence granting religious freedom to all
- Fear of Roman Catholic monarchy supported by France and ruling outside law
- James II/queen/son fled to France and become pensioners to Louis XIV
- william + mary crowned king/queen of England
- glorious because of min.bloodshed
- BILL OF RIGHTS written
English bill of rights
- men wrote that brought about Glorious Revolution
- formulated response to Stuart absolutism
- judges hold offices "during good behavior"
- granted subjects (protestants) arms for their defense
- Parliament had to be called every 3 years at least
- political philosopher than defended gloriosu revolution
- SECOND TREATISE OF CIVIL GOV'T: maintained people set up civil gov'ts to protect life, liberty, and property
- gov't overteps this --> tyranny b/c of lack of natural rights
- linked ecomomic liberty/private property to political freedom
- gov't evolved during 18th c.
- small private room in which English rulers consulted chief ministers
- leading ministers, who have seats in support of a majority of the House of Commons, formualte common policy and conduct business of country
- Federal assembly that handled matters of foreign affairs
- did NOT possess sovereign authority
- appointed a rep in each province
- Stadholders, the representative,carried out ceremonical functions
Dutch East India co.
- 1602 group of regents of Holland formed this, a joint stock company
- investors each received a percent of profits proportional to amount of money put in
- cut heavily into Portuguese trading in East Asia
- seized cape of good hope, ceylon, and Malacca, est. trading posts in each
- 1630s it was paying investors 35% annual return
- traded extensively w/Latin Am. + Africa
- **brought Dutch huge wealth/high standard of living