Similar to bacteriophage. An additional step is required.
Attachment- Viral surface proteins bind cell plasma membrane proteins and glycoproteins (receptors)
Penetration- Endocytosis of the entire virion (non-enveloped), or fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell’s plasma membrane occurs. The virus capsid is then released into the host cell's cytoplasm.
Uncoating- NA is not injected, so the capsid must be removed. May be accomplished by viral or host enzymes.
Biosynthesis: There are variations, depending on the type of viral NA.
DNA viruses: DNA synthesis usually occurs in the nucleus, with viral enzymes.
Protein synthesis is in the cytoplasm, with host enzymes. (Fig.13.15)
RNA viruses: A variety of unique strategies and enzymes for replicating genome
+RNA viruses: Synthesize -RNA to serve as a template to make new genomes and mRNA
-RNA viruses: Synthesize +RNA which is mRNA and a template for -RNA genomes
Retrovirus: Synthesizes DNA from RNA and must integrate to host chromosome
Maturation: Capsid assembly is usually spontaneous.
In nucleus for most DNA viruses; in cytoplasm for RNA viruses
Release: By rupture of plasma membrane (lysis) or by budding, host cell may survive a long time.
Animal cell viruses replication