Dental Anatomy

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avanwyk
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44777
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Dental Anatomy
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2010-11-02 00:27:10
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Bony Landmarks Attachments
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Study cards for Anatomy Exam 1
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  1. This landmark can be found on the vertebral body and articulates with the head of a rib.
    Costal facet
  2. This space in a vertebra houses the spinal cord.
    Vertebral foramen
  3. The spinal nerves and radicular vessels are transmitted through ___________ foramena. These are made up of the vertebral ___________ of adjacent vertebrae.
    • Intervertebral
    • Notches
  4. Name the labeled structures:
    • 1. Spinous process
    • 2. Lamina
    • 3. Superior articular process/facet
    • 4. Transverse process
    • 5. Pedicle
    • 6. Body
    • 7. Spinous facet
    • 8. Costotubercular facet
    • 9. Inferior articular process
  5. The joint between two adjacent vertebrae is called the __________________ and comes from the Greek word for "growing together."
  6. This ligament attaches to the anterior surfaces of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs and acts to stabilize the vertebral column and prevent hyperextension.
    Anterior longitudinal ligament.
  7. What is the name of the pictured ligament, where does it attach and what is its function?
    This is the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament. This ligament attaches to the posterior surfaces of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. It functions to prevent hyperflexion of the vertebral column.
  8. There are two spinal ligaments pictured below. What is the name of the more proximal ligament, where does it attach and what is its function?
    The two pictured ligaments are the Ligamentum flavum and the Intertransverse ligament. The Ligamentum flavum connects adjacent laminae and assists in maintaining or regaining the erect position and serve to close in the spaces between the arches.
  9. Name the three ligaments pictured here along with the attachments for "b" and "c." The ligament labeled "c" is associated with which vertebrae in the spinal column?
    • a) Ligamentum Flavum
    • b) Interspinous ligament - This connects adjacent spinous processes.
    • c) Supraspinous ligament - This attaches to the apices of the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum.
  10. Whati is the name of the pictured ligament? Where does it attach and what other ligament is it a continuation of?
    Ligamentum Nuchae. This ligament attaches from C7 spinous process and extends to the occipital protuberance. It is a continuation of the supraspinous ligament.
  11. This group of muscles is known as the ____________. What are the names of the three numbered heads of this muscle?
    • This group of muscles is known as the Erector Spinae. The three heads are:
    • 1. Iliocastalis
    • 2. Longissimus
    • 3. Spinalis
  12. The Spinal cord has two enlargements. Where are they?
    In the cervical and in the lumbar region.
  13. The primary sensory neuronal cell bodies are located in the ______________.
    Dorsal root ganglion
  14. Name the labeled structures:
    • 1. Posterior median septum
    • 2. Posterior funiculus
    • 3. Posterior intermediate septum
    • 4. Posterior gray horn
    • 5. Dorsal root entry zone (Lissauer's tract)
    • 6. Lateral column
    • 7. Anterior column
    • 8. Anterior gray horn
  15. Name the labeled structures:
    • 1. Pia mater
    • 2. Arachnoid
    • 3. Dura mater
    • 4. Anterior median fissure
    • 5. Dorsal root filaments
    • 6. Ventral root filaments
    • 7. Dorsal root ganglion
    • 8. Mixed spinal nerve
  16. Which numbered structure is the right pulmonary artery? Which is the left pulmonary artery?
    • Right Pulmonary Artery: 3
    • Left Pulmonary Artery: 7
  17. What is the structure numbered 1?
    Ascending Aorta
  18. Name the labeled structures:
    • 1. Aorta
    • 2. Right Coronary Artery
    • 3. Left anterior descending coronary artery (interventricular)
    • 4. Circumflex coronary artery
    • 5. Left main coronary artery
  19. Name the numbered structures:
    • 1. Right coronary artery
    • 2. Anterior interventricular artery
    • 3. Posterior interventricular artery
    • 4. Coronary Sinus
  20. Name structures 1-5 below:
    • 1. Right common carotid artery
    • 2. Right subclavian artery
    • 3. Brachiocephalic artery
    • 4. Left common carotid artery
    • 5. Left subclavian artery
  21. Name structures 6-10 below:
    • 6. Right coronary artery
    • 7. Left coronary artery
    • 8. Ascending aorta
    • 9. Aortic arch
    • 10. Descending aorta
  22. What are structures 1-3?
    • 1. Thoracic (descending) aorta
    • 2. Posterior intercostal arteries
    • 3. Anterior intercostal arteries
  23. The portion of the aorta that is found below the diaphragm is known as the ____________.
    Abdominal aorta
  24. Name the numbered structures:
    • 1. Celiac trunk
    • 2. Right and left renal arteries
    • 3. Superior mesenteric
    • 4. Right and left gonadal arteries
    • 5. Inferior mesenteric
    • 6. Left common iliac artery
  25. Name the numbered structures 1-6:
    • 1. Celiac trunk
    • 2. Splenic artery
    • 3. Common hepatic artery
    • 4. Proper hepatic artery
    • 5. Left gastric artery
    • 6. Right gastric artery
  26. Name structures 7-12:
    • 7. Gastroduodenal artery
    • 8. Left gastro-omental artery
    • 9. Pancreatic branches
    • 10. Right gastro-omental artery
    • 11. Inferior pancroduodenal artery
    • 12. Superior mesenteric artery
  27. This part of a rib articulates with the body of a vertebra.
    Head
  28. Name the numbered landmarks:
    • 1. Costal facets
    • 2. Crest (together with #1 comprises the head)
    • 3. Neck
    • 4. Articular portion of tubercle
    • 5. Nonarticular portion of tubercle
    • 6. Angle
    • 7. Costal groove
    • 8. Body of rib
  29. This landmark on the first rib is flanked by two grooves. What is this landmark called and what passes through each of the grooves?
    • The scalene tubercle - this attaches the anterior scalene muscle to the 1st rib.
    • The subclavian vein passes through the groove anterior to the scalene tubercle while the subclavian artery passes through the groove posterior to the scalene tubercle.
  30. Which lymphatic duct drains nodes of the right and left lower extremities, pelvis, abdomen, left thorax, left upper extremity and left head and neck?
    The Thoracic duct (a lymphatic trunk)
  31. Which lymphatic duct drains nodes of the right thorax, right upper extremity, and right head and neck?
    Right lymphatic duct
  32. These muscles are attached from rib to rib and are oriented in a superior-lateral to inferior-medial direction. What are these muscles called, what is their action and which nerve are they innervated by?
    External intercostal muscles act in elevation of the ribs and are innervated by the intercostal nerve.
  33. These muscles are attached from rib to rib and are oriented in superior-medial to inferior-lateral direction. What are these muscles called, what is their action and which nerve are they innervated by?
    Internal and Innermost intercostal muscles act in the depression of the ribs and are innervated by the intercostal nerve.
  34. This muscle attaches at the sternum, the inner surface of the lower ribs, the posterior abdominal wall and the lumbar vertebrae to the central tendon. What is this muscle called, what is its action and what nerve innervates it?
    The diaphragm acts in inspiration by displacing inferiorly and creating negative thoracic pressure. It is innervated by the phrenic nerve.
  35. Which nerve is associated with C3-C5? What is its function?
    The Phrenic nerve. It functions in sensory, motor (LMN) and postganglionic sympathetic innervation to the diaphragm.
  36. These nerves function in sensory and postganglionic sympathetic innervation to back muscles and overlying skin as well as motor (LMN) innervation of back muscles.
    Dorsal rami of thoracic spinal nerves
  37. These nerves function in sensory and postganglionic sympathetic innervation to intercostal muscles, parietal pleura and skin as well as motor (LMN) innervation of intercostal muscles.
    Ventral rami of thoracic spinal nerves
  38. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nerves both fall under the general classification of the __________ nervous system.
    Autonomic
  39. These rami communications carry preganglionic sympathetic axons to the sympathetic chain (ganglia) and sensory axons from the viscera to the spinal cord.
    White (T1-L2)
  40. These rami communications carry postganglionic sympathetic axons from the sympathetic chain to the spinal nerves for distribution through the dorsal and ventral rami and sensory axons form the viscera to the spinal cord.
    Gray (C1-S5)
  41. This medial sympathetic nerve carries preganglionic sympathetic axons to the celiac ganglion and sensory axons from the viscera supplied by the celiac artery. What is its name and what spinal nerves is it associated with?
    The greater splanchnic nerve (T5-9)
  42. This structure houses postganglionic sympathetic neuronal cell bodies innervating viscera supplied by branches of the celiac artery.
    Celiac ganglia
  43. The Vagus nerve is part of the _____________ autonomic nervous system.
    Parasympathetic
  44. This nerve functions to carry preganglionic parasympathetic axons innervating thoracic and abdominal viscera to the level of the left colic flexure and sensory axons innervating the same viscera.
    The Vagus nerve
  45. This arch of the vena cava comes from the greek meaning "without a yoke, unpaired." It drains the thoracic and posterior abdominal walls. What is it called?
    The Azygos (arch)
  46. The subclavian vein branches from what larger vein?
    The brachiocephalic vein
  47. Name the numbered structures:
    • 1. Right superior pulmonary vein
    • 2. Right inferior pulmonary vein
    • 3. Left superior pulmonary vein
    • 4. Left inferior pulmonary vein
    • 5. Inferior vena cava
    • 6. Superior vena cava
    • 7. Aorta
    • 8. Brachiocephalic artery (later splits into right common caroted and right subclavian arteries)
    • 9. Left common carotid artery
    • 10. Left subclavian artery
  48. What are the names of the three main cardiac veins?
    Small, Middle and Great cardiac veins.
  49. Name the numbered structures:
    • 1. Renal veins
    • 2. Gonadal veins
    • 3. Hepatic veins
  50. Name the numbered structures:
    • 1. Portal vein
    • 2. Superior mesenteric vein
    • 3. Inferior mesenteric vein
    • 4. Splenic vein
  51. Viscera:
  52. What muscle attaches from the lower thoracic spinous processes, the thoracolumbar facia and iliac crest to the medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus? What is the function and innervation of this muscle?
    The latissimus dorsi. This muscle acts on humoral adduction, extension and medial rotation and is innervated by the thoracodorsal nerve.
  53. What are the attachments, actions and innervations for the Levator scapulae?
    The levator scapulae attaches from the upper cervical transverse processes to the superior medial border of the scapula. It elevates the scapula and acts in inferior rotation of the lateral angle of the scapula. The levator scapulae is innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve.
  54. What are the attachments, actions and innervations of the pectoralis major?
    • The pectoralis major attaches from the clavicle, costal cartilages, sternum and aponeurosis of the external oblique to the lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus.
    • The pectoralis acts on humoral adduction, flexion and medial rotation.
    • The pectoralis major is innervated by the medial and lateral pectoral nerves.
  55. This muscle is attached from ribs 3-5 to the caracoid process of the scapula. What is the name of this muscle, what are its actions and innervation?
    The pectoralis minor works on scapular protraction and assists with depression of the shoulder and forced inspiration. It is innervated by the medial and lateral pectoral nerves.
  56. The Rhomboids, aside from being geometrical figures are also muscles. Where are their attachments, what is their action and what nerve innervates them?
    The rhomboids are attached from the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinous processes to the medial border of the scapula. They act in scapular retraction and inferior rotation of the lateral angle of the scapula. They are innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve.
  57. This muscle attaches from the upper 8-10 ribs to the deep, medial border of the scapula. What is its name, action and innervation?
    The Serratus anterior works in scapular protraction and upper rotation of the lateral angle of the scapula. It is innervated by the long thoracic nerve.
  58. What is this muscle? What are its attachments, its function, and innervation?
    Trapezius attaches from the superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae and cervical and thoracic spinous processes to the clavicle, acromion and scapular spine. It acts to elevate the scapula along with depression, retraction and superior rotation of the lateral angle. It is innervated by the accessory nerve(motor) and C3-C5(sensory).
  59. What carries axons projecting to the substantia gelatinosa?
    Lissauer's Tract
  60. This area appears like a cap on the dorsal horn of the gray matter in the spinal cord. What is it called?
    Substantia gelatinosa
  61. This area of the spinal cord white matter carries axons of the corticospinal and spinothalamic tracts.
    Lateral column
  62. What type of axons are found in the lateral column of white matter in the spinal cord?
    Axons of the corticospinal and spinothalamic tracts.
  63. Axons of the corticospinal tracts are carried through which white matter columns in the spinal cord?
    The anterior column and the lateral column. The lateral column, however, also carries axons of the spinothalamic tract.
  64. Which part of the spinal cord white matter carries dorsal column medial lemniscal axons for the upper extremity? The lower extremity?
    The fasciculus cuneatus portion of the posterior column carries dorsal column medial lemniscal axons for the upper extremity. The fasciculus gracilis carries medial lemniscal axons for the lower extremity.
  65. The posterior column, broken up into the fasciculus cuneatus and fasciculus gracilis functions to carry what kind of axons?
    F.C. carries dorsal column medial lemniscal axons for the upper extremity. F.G. carries dorsal column medial lemniscal axons for the lower extremity.
  66. The posterior column medial lemniscal pathway functions for what kind of sensory perception?
    Fine touch, vibration and proprioception.
  67. What neural pathway is responsible for fine touch and proprioception?
    The dorsal column medial lemniscal pathway.
  68. Which neural pathway is responsible for crude touch, pain and temperature sensation?
    The spinothalamic tract
  69. The spinothalamic tract is responsible for what type of sensory information?
    Crude touch, pain and temperature
  70. Which part of the white matter carries spinothalamic axons crossing the midline? Where is it found in the spinal cord?
    The anterior white commissure. It is found just anterior to the central canal and at the base of the anterior median fissure.
  71. What is the function of the dorsal horn of the spinal column gray matter?
    It is the location of neuronal cell bodies processing sensory information.
  72. Which horn contains neuronal cell bodies responsible for processing sensory information?
    The posterior (dorsal) horn.
  73. What is the function of the substantia gelatinosa?
    It houses neuronal cell bodies that process pain and temperature information.
  74. Where are neural cell bodies that process pain and temperature information found?
    In the substantia gelatinosa of the posterior (dorsal) horn.
  75. Intermediate gray matter is where what type of neuronal cell bodies are found?
    Preganglionic sympathetic neuronal cell bodies are found in the intermediate gray.
  76. Preganglionic cell bodies are found in what portion of the gray matter?
    In the intermediate gray matter.
  77. What is the function of the Anterior (ventral) horn of gray matter?
    This is where lower mootor neuronal cell bodies are found.
  78. Where are lower motor neuronal cell bodies found?
    In the anterior (ventral) horn.
  79. What are the names of the three meninges in order from the most medial to lateral?
    The pia mater, the arachnoid mater and the dura mater.
  80. What structures are found in the typical spinal nerve?
    A ventral and dorsal root and a ventral and dorsal ramus.
  81. What types of axons are carried by ventral roots?
    Axons from lower motor neurons and preganglionic sympathetic motor neurons. T1-L2
  82. Skeletal muscle innervation and preganglionic sympathetic motor neurons have axons that are found in which of spinal nerve roots?
    Ventral root.
  83. What is the function of the dorsal root?
    It carries axons from primary sensory neurons innervating skin, fascia, joints, muscles, bones, blood vessels and viscera.
  84. Where are the cell bodies for primary sensory neurons found?
    In the dorsal root ganglion.
  85. What is the function of the ventral ramus?
    It carries axons from the primary sensory neurons, lower motor neurons and postganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating the anterior neck, thoracic wall, abdominal wall, pelvic wall, upper and lower extremities.
  86. What is the function of the dorsal ramus?
    • Carries axons from primary sensory neurons, lower motor neurons and postganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating posterior neck and back structures.
  87. These arteries carry deoxygenated blood away from the heart. What are they called?
    Right and left pulmonary arteries.
  88. Which other artery anastamoses with the right coronary artery?
    The circumflex branch of the left coronary artery.
  89. What two coronary arteries branch off of the right coronary artery?
    The Atrial rami and the posterior interventricular artery.
  90. What two branches does the left coronary artery split into?
    The anterior interventricular and circumflex branch.
  91. What artery anastamoses with the anterior interventricular artery?
    The posterior interventricular artery.
  92. What artery anastamoses with the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery?
    • The right coronary artery.
  93. The arch of the aorta has three branches that come off of its apex. What are the names of these three arteries?
    • 1. The brachiocephalic artery (later branches into the right common carotid and right subclavian)
    • 2. The left common carotid a.
    • 3. The left subclavian a. (later branches into the thyrocervical trunk and axillary a.)
  94. The left and right subclavian arteries branch into which main branches?
    • Right - Axillary a. and cervical trunk.
    • Left - vertebral a., thyrocervical trunk, axillary a.
  95. These arteries branches off of the descending (thoracic) aorta just above the diaphragm.
    Posterior intercostal arteries
  96. The abdominal aorta has three arteries that branch off anteriorly. What are these three branches?
    Superior to inferior: Celiac branch, superior mesenteric and Inferior mesenteric.
  97. What three main branches come off of the Celiac artery?
    • 1. Left gastric
    • 2. Common hepatic
    • 3. Splenic
  98. What are the main branches off of the common hepatic artery and what are their anastomoses?
    • 1. Right gastric a. - anastomoses w/ left gastric
    • 2. Gastroduodenal a. Y gastroepiploic a. - anastomoses w/ left gastroepiploic a.
    • 3. Hepatic proper a. Y right and left hepatic arteries.
  99. There is one main branch off of the splenic artery. What is it and what does it anastomose with?
    The left gastroepiploic anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic.
  100. Two sets of arteries branch off of the lateral sides of the abdominal aorta between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. What are they?
    • The left and right renal arteries
    • The left and right gonadal arteries
  101. There are two types of muscles that attach from rib to rib. One is oriented in a superior-lateral to inferior-medial direction (A) while the other is oriented in a superior-medial to inferior-lateral direction (B). Name these muscles and the nerve that innervates them (C).
    • A) External intercostal muscles
    • B) Internal intercostal muscles
    • C) Intercostal nerve
  102. What nerve innervates the diaphragm?
    The phrenic nerve
  103. Which nerve is associated with C3-C5 and what plexus is it part of?
    The phrenic nerve is part of the cervical plexus.
  104. The intercostal nerve is associated with which group of rami?
    Thoracic ventral rami.
  105. The autonomic nervous system is broken down into what two subdivisions?
    The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
  106. What are the rami communications of the sympathetic trunks that carry preganglionic sympathetic axons to sympathetic chain and sensory axons from the viscera to the spinal cord.
    White (T1-L2)
  107. What are the rami communications that carry postganglionic sympathetic axons from the sympathetic chain to the spinal nerves for distribution through the dorsal and ventral rami, and the sensory axons from the viscera to the spinal cord?
    Gray (C1-S5)
  108. What is the nerve associated with T5-T9 called?
    The greater splanchnic nerve.
  109. This structure houses postganglionic sympathetic neuronal cell bodies innervating viscera supplied by branches of the celiac artery.
    Celiac ganglion
  110. This nerve carries preganglionic parasympathetic axons innervating thoracic and abdominal viscera to the level of the left colic flexure, and sensory axons innervating the same viscera.
    The vagus nerve.
  111. The vagus nerve splits into two sections. What are they?
    The left recurrent laryngeal nerve and the vagal trunks.
  112. Name the labeled veins:
    • 1. R. Subclavian vein
    • 2. R. internal jugular vein
    • 3. Left brachiocephalic
    • 4. Azygos vein
    • 5. Hepatic veins
    • 6. Renal veins
    • 7. Gonadal veins
  113. What is the function of the azygos vein?
    To drain the thoracic and posterior abdominal walls.
  114. Name the labeled veins and the arteries they are associated with:
    • 1. Small cardiac vein (Right coronary artery)
    • 2. Middle cardiac vein (Posterior interventricular artery)
    • 3. Great cardiac vein (Anterior interventricular artery)
    • 4. Coronary Sinus
  115. What are the main branches of the hepatic portal vein?
    • 1. L. gastric vein
    • 2. Splenic vein (later splits into L. gastroepiploic)
    • 3. Superior mesenteric vein
  116. Name the labeled structures:
    • 1. Larynx
    • 2. Trachea
    • 3. Main bronchi
    • 4. Lobar bronchi
    • 5. Segmental bronchi
    • 6. Bronchioles
    • 7. Cardiac notch
  117. How many lobes and fissures does the right lung have and what are they called? The left lung?
    The right lung has upper middle and lower lobes; oblique and horizontal fissures. The left lung has upper and lower lobes and an oblique fissure.
  118. There are two types of pleura that surround the lung. What are they called? How do these function in respiration?
    Visceral pleura (closest to the lung) and parietal pleura. The visceral pleura adheres to the parietal pleura when the lung grows to fill the pleural cavity. This then allows for a negative pressure to build, forcing air into the lungs when the pleural cavity increases in volume.
  119. What three arteries arise from the subclavian artery?
    • A. Thyrocervical trunk
    • B. Axillary a.
    • C. Brachial a.
  120. Name the numbered structures:
    • 1. Olecranon process
    • 2. Trochlear (semilunar) arch
    • 3. Coronid process
    • 4. Ulnar tuberosity
    • 5. Radial notch
    • 6. Shaft
    • 7. Head of ulna (distal end)
    • 8. Styloid process
  121. Name the numbered landmarks:
    • 1. Head of radius (proximal end)
    • 2. Neck
    • 3. Radial tuberosity (attaches to biceps muscle)
    • 4. Shaft
    • 5. Styloid process (distal end)
    • 6. Ulnar notch of radius (distal end)
  122. Name the numbered structures:
    • 1. Styloid process of radius
    • 2. Scaphoid
    • 3. Lunate
    • 4. Triquetral
    • 5. Pisiform
    • 6. Trapezium
    • 7. Trapezoid
    • 8. Capitate
    • 9. Hamate
    • 10. Metacarpals
    • 11. Proximal phalange
    • 12. Middle phalange
    • 13. Distal phalange
    • 14. Styloid process of ulna
  123. Name the numbered landmarks:
    • 1. Corocoid process
    • 2. Suprascapular notch
    • 3. Superior border
    • 4. Supraspinous fossa
    • 5. Superior angle
    • 6. Spine of scapula
    • 7. Medial border
    • 8. Infraspinous fossa
    • 9. Inferior angle
    • 10. Lateral border
    • 11. Glenoid fossa
    • 12. Acromion process
  124. Name the numbered landmarks:
    • 1. Corocoid process
    • 2. Glenoid cavity
    • 3. Spine
    • 4. Acromion process
    • 5. Infraspinous fossa
    • 6. Inferior angle
    • 7. Lateral border

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