Preparation and examination procedures 5.2

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Preparation and examination procedures 5.2
2010-10-25 15:11:58
parasitology preparation examination procedures NSHS MLT

Parasitology lesson 5.2, preparation and examination procedures
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  1. This is a poisonous chemical in polyvinyl alcohol and Schaudinn's fixative.
    mercuric chloride
  2. Formalin is used as a _________.
  3. What are three examples of flamables used in the parasitology?
    • ethyl alcohol
    • xylene
    • toluene
  4. for direct collection of fecal specimens a ______ mouth plastic container should be used.
  5. When performing O&P exam intestinal protozoa will be undetectale for at least one week after what procedure?
    barium enema
  6. O&P exams should be delayed one week following what four medications?
    • antibiotics
    • mineral oil
    • bismuth derivatives
    • anti-malarial medications
  7. What are five susbstances that may interfere with O&P exams?
    • antiseptics
    • laxative
    • soap
    • urine
    • water
  8. explain intestinal parasite specimen collection.
    three specimens collected in a 2-3 day interval
  9. explain amoebiasis specimen collection.
    six specimens over a 10 day period
  10. parasite specimens should be submitted immediately because these forms will die after 30 min.
    motile forms
  11. This is the preservative of choice for parasite specimens, may be used for permanent slides.
    plyvinyl alcohol
  12. true or false
    formalin concentrations can be drawn from PVA-preserved specimens.
    polyvinyl alcohol
  13. how long are specimens preserved with PVA stable for?
    up to 1 year
  14. what are the two disadvantages of PVA?
    • contains mercuric chloride
    • possible disposal hazard
  15. This preservative is used for fresh stool and mucosal linings, adapted to inpatients.
    Schaudin's preservative/fixative
  16. What is the disadvantage of Schaudin's preservative.
    contains mercuric chloride
  17. This preservative is used in 10% concentrations, heat solution to disinfect.
    formalin preservative
  18. what is the disadvantage of formalin preservative?
    cannot be used for permanent slides
  19. in MIF what stains and what preserves?
    • Iodine and merthiolate stain
    • formaldehyde preserves
  20. What are the two disadvantages of MIF.
    • cannot be used for permanent slides
    • not adapted for concentration
  21. This is done on all fecal specimens to ensure detection of even small numbers of organism.
    stool concentration technique
  22. This concentration technique allows eggs and cyst to float to surface. used to detect protozoan cysts and nematode ova.
    floatation technique
  23. This concentration technique contains zinc SO4, sugars, and NaCl, and a high spec. grav. 1.180
    flotation technique
  24. What is the best concentration technique for concentration of cysts and eggs?
  25. What are the thee cysts and eggs that are better concentrated by sedimentation than flotation.
    • operculated ova
    • schistosomal ova
    • infertile ascaris eggs
  26. The concentration technique destroys trophozoites, walls of eggs and cysts collapse, and organisms become distorted in appearance.
    flotation techniques
  27. rapid deceleration may cause the floating organisms to sink to the bottom in this concentration technique.
  28. This concentration technique cannot be sued for trematode and cestode ova.
    flatation technique
  29. This is the concentration technique of choice, because it is easier and causes less errors.
    formalin ethyl acetate
  30. This sedimentation technique recovers protozoa, ova and larva, used on fresh or preserved specimens and iodine can be added for staining.
    formalin/ethyl acetate
  31. This sedimentation technique is less efficient than floatation for cysts and eggs, preserves most parasites, and is safer than formalin-ether technique.
    Formalin/ethyl acetate
  32. This rapid sedimentation procedure removes lipids and colloidal material.
  33. Ether is highly __________.
  34. in macroscopic examination, hard or formed stool indicates what form of parasite.
  35. loose, watery, liquid stool upon macroscopic examination usually indicates what form of parasite?
  36. soft stool usually indicates what form of parasites?
    trophs and cysts
  37. what type of ova and larvae are found in any fecal consistency?
  38. This test is preformed along side of macroscopic examination to detect occult blood.
    guiac test
  39. Yellow and foul-smelling stool indicates what organism?
    G. lamblia
  40. This organism may be found at the bottom of the container.
  41. this ova may be found at the surface of the specimen.
  42. if ______ is present, check for possible trophozoite forms.
  43. These crystals are associated with amoebiasis and helminth infections.
    Carcot-leyden crystals
  44. When performing specimen examination scan the entire slide (wet mount) for ____ minutes on low power.
  45. What is the direct mount used for motility.
    saline prep
  46. What is the direct mount used for cyst (kills trophozoites)
  47. What type of stain is used for trophozoites?
    supra vital
  48. This procedure is preformed in conjuction with a concentration procedure, and is recommended for every fecal specimen.
    permanent slide stain
  49. This is a more convenient and permanent method compared to wet mounts.
    permanent slide stain
  50. What are the two preservatives that cannot be used for permanent slide stain?
    formalin or MIF
  51. This is a rapid, easy to use, highly stabe stain that can be used repeatedly, consistent.
    trichrome (gomori) stain
  52. What will be the appearance of cytoplasm, nucleus, and background material on the trichrome stain?
    • Cytoplasm: blue-green tinged with purple
    • Nucleus: red to reddish-purple
    • Background: green to green-blue
  53. This is a complex, time consuming stain that requires experience.
    Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin stain
  54. what will the appearance fo cytoplasm, nucleus, and background using the Spencer-monroe stain?
    • Cytoplasm: lighter than nucleus
    • Nucleus: blue-black, purplish-blue
    • Background: blue grey
  55. what are five examples of pseudoparasites that can be falsely identified?
    • WBC's
    • Epithelial cells
    • Pollen grains
    • Plant structure
    • yeast
  56. these stain purple and fuzzy and can be pseudoparasites in malarial smears.
  57. after being centrifuged at 2300 for 1-2 min, what should be discarded in the flotation technique?
  58. after adding zinc sulfate in the floatation technique, what should be done to the suspension?
    strained; return filtrate to tube
  59. What should be QC'd in the floatation technique?
    • SG
    • Fresh feces: 1.180
    • Formalin preserved: 1.200
  60. in the sedimentation technique, 1-1.5 g of stool is added to 10% formalin and let stand for how long?
    30 minutes
  61. How long are sedimentation technique specimens centrifuged for?
    2000 RPM for 1-2 min
  62. What is used to resuspend in the sedimentation technique?
    10% formalin
  63. after the sedimentation technique is comple there will be four layers, how many should be discarded?
    top three
  64. in the formalin-ethyl acetate procedure what should be checked for QC?
    check formalin for proper pH
  65. how is neutral pH maintained in the formalin preservative.
    marble chips
  66. what are the four reagents and eqiupment for Trichrome (Gomori) stain?
    • D'Antoni's iodine solution
    • 70%, 95%, 100% alcohol
    • xylene and toluene
    • mounting media
  67. this reagent in trichrome stain contains 1g K iodide in 100 ml DI H2O, and 1.5g iodine crystals which are filtered and sotred in a brown bottle.
    D'antoni's iodine solution
  68. How often should D'antoni's iodine be changed?
    every 10-14 days
  69. in the trichrome stain, fixed slides are placed in a bath of 70% alcohol for 2 minutes and _______ is added untill the mixture resembles strong tea.
    D'antoni's iodine
  70. known positive fecal specimens or feces containing buffy coat white cells (PVA preserved fecal specimens that have one or more intestinal protozoa are especially useful) is the QC for what?
    trichrome (gomori) stain