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What is Coronary Artery Disease?
- narrowing of vessels supplying blood to heart
- diminished blood supply(hypoxia) to cardiac muscle produces ischemic changes`
What is Atherosclerosis?
- narrowing of vessels due to accululation of collagen, calcium salts, and lips on interior walls
- Lifestyle/personal behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking)
What is Ateriosclerosis?
- collection of calcium and salt deposits in vessel wall, resulting in decreased elasticity of arterial walls
- age-related stuffening of arterial walls
What are the cardinal symptoms of Cardiac Disease?
- chest pain
- SOB when supine/on exertion; nocturnal episodes of SOB.
- ankle edema; neck vein distention
- easily fatigued or overwhelming fatique
- angina pectoris
- cough, hemoptsis
- tachycardia, palpitations
- weight gain
What is the circulating blood volume?
- about 2:1 ratio
- 10lb weight gain= 5L of fluid
- signs/symptoms depend on whether failure is diastolic or systolic
What are the normal age-related changes in cardioregulatory system?
- Heart disease - NOT INEVITABLE
- heart size may decrease
- englargment with HTN or heart disease
- Left ventricular wall thickens
- lipid deposits around heart muscles
- myocardium less elastic and more rigid
- valves fibrose/calcify, particularly mitral valve and aortic cusps
- common EKG changes are: 1st degree AV block, ST-T wave abnormalities, premature systole, and atrial fibrillation
What is Cardiac Output?
- CO=stroke volume X HR
- measure of heart's ablilty to adapt to changing demands, eg., work, rest, illness, and digestion
- CO decreases 30-40% between ages 25-65years
- HR of 100-120 bpm tolerated poorly due to CO decline
Anatomically, where is the heart located? And how big is it?
- It is left of the midline, above the diaphragm, behind the sternum at the 3rd-6th costal cartilages
- 12cm length X 8cm width X 6cm AP diameter; size= closed fist
What is Dextrocardia?
- completed mirror image of expected
- rotated or displaced
- situs inversus-heart and stomach on right and liver on left.
When are the Atrioventricular Valves (tricuspid & bicuspid) open and shut?
- open during atrial contraction allowing blood flow between the atria and ventricles during ventricular relaxation (diastole)
- snap shut during ventricular contraction to prevent backflow during systole
When are the semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic) open and shut?
Open with systole, closed with diastole
Newly oxygenated blood is sent to the blod by what arteries?
- carotid arteries
- brachial arteries bifurcate to ulnar & radial arteries
- abdominal arteries bifurcate to iliac & femoral arteries
- popliteal arteries bifurcate to dorsalis pedis & posterior tibial arteries