medical term. ch 4

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ang615
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44846
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medical term. ch 4
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2010-10-25 17:57:05
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medical terminology health professions
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The muscular system
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  1. dys-
    bad
  2. -cele
    hernia
  3. -plegia
    paralysis
  4. fasci/o
    fascia
  5. fibr/o
    fibrous connective tissue
  6. kinesi/o
    movement
  7. -ia
    condition
  8. tax/o
    coordination
  9. -ic
    pertaining to
  10. -rrhexis
    rupture
  11. ten/o, tend/o
    tone
  12. oblique
    slanted or at an angle
  13. nocturnal myoclonus
    jerking of limbs as a person is falling asleep
  14. impingement syndrome
    inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joints
  15. exercise physiologist
    a specialist who works under a physician's supervision to develop, implement and coordinate exercise programs and administer medical test to promote physical fitness
  16. heel spur
    a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone
  17. myoclonus
    sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
  18. polymyositis
    a muscle disease characterized by the inflammation & weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body at the same time
  19. hypokinesia
    abnormally decreasd muscle function or activity
  20. hypotonia
    condition where there is dimished tone of the skeletal muscles.
  21. myocele
    the protrusion of muscle substance through a tear in the surrounding fascia
  22. fascia
    the sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates muscles or groups of muscles
  23. myotonia
    neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction.
  24. -rrhaphy
    surgical suturing
  25. hypertonia
    excessive tone of the skeletal muscles
  26. dorsiflexion
    bends the foot upward at the ankle
  27. circumduction
    circular movement at the far end of a limb
  28. pronation
    turns the palms of the hand downward or backward
  29. electroneuromyography
    test and records neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle
  30. epicondylitis
    inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
  31. plantar fasciitis
    inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot
  32. myofascial release
    specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia
  33. Myofascial
    Means pertaining to fascia & muscle tissue
  34. Tendons
    A narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
  35. Aponeurosis (ap-oh-new-ROH-sis)
    A flat fibrous sheet of connective tissue that is very similar to a tendonHOWEVER!!!! It attaches a muscle to a bone or to other tissues
  36. The three types of muscle tissue
    -SKELETAL-SMOOTH -MYOCARDIAL
  37. Kinesiology (kih-nee-see-OL-oh-jee)
    The study of muscular activity and the resulting movement of body parts
  38. Antagonistic Muscle Pairs
    • Muscles are arranged in antagonistic pairs
    • -One muscle produces movement in one direction and the other muscle produces movement in the opposite directions
  39. Antagonistic
    Pertaining to working in opposition to each other
  40. Muscle Tone Also Known as Tonus (TOH-nus)
    The normal state of balanced muscle tension (contraction/relaxation) that makes normal posture and coordination possible
  41. MUSCLE INNERVATION
    -The stimulation of the muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve

    -The stimulation causes the muscle to contract and when the stimulation stops the muscle relaxes
  42. Neuromuscular (new-roh-MUS-kyou-lar)
    -Means pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle-If the nerve impulse is interrupted because of injury or pathology of the nervous system, the muscle is paralyzed and cannot contract.
  43. Flexion (FLECK-shun)
    Decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint

    Example: The elbow is bent and the lower arm is brought upward
  44. Flexor
    A muscle that bends a limb at a joint
  45. Extension
    Increasing the angle between two bones or straightening out a limb.Example: The elbow is straightened and lower arm is brought down
  46. Extensor
    A muscle that straightens a limb at a joint
  47. SUPINATION (soo-pih-NAY-shun)
    The act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned forward or upward
  48. PRONATION (proh-NAY-shun)
    The act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned backward or downward.
  49. Muscle Origin
    The place where the muscle begins (originates)This is the more fixed (less moveable) attachment or the end of the muscle nearest the midline of the body
  50. Muscle Insertion
    The place where the muscle ends (inserts)It is the more movable attachment or the end of the muscle farthest from the midline of the body
  51. : Sternocleidomastoid (ster-noh-kly-doh-MASS-toid)
    • Helps flex the neck and rotate the headNamed for its two points of origin and the point of insertion
    • This muscle begins near the midline at the sternum (breastbone) and clavicle (collar bone).
    • Its inserts away from the midline into the mastoid process of the temporal bone (located just behind the ear)
  52. Rectus (RECK-tus)
    Means straight

    • Example
    • Rectus Abdominis An abdominal muscle in straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body
  53. Oblique (Oh-BLEEK)
    Means slanted or at an angleExample External Abdominal oblique An abdominal muscle that slants outward at an oblique angle , away from the midline
  54. Sphincter (SFINK-ter)
    • A ring like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway
    • These muscles are named for the passage involved

    Example Anal SphincterCloses the anus
  55. Hamstring Group of Muscles
    Located at the back of the upper leg

    • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus
    • Biceps femoris
  56. Orthopedic Surgeons
    Treat injuries and disorders involving bones, joints, muscles, and tendons
  57. Neurologist
    Treats the cause of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function
  58. Tenodynia (ten-oh-DIN-ee-ah)
    Pain in a tendon
  59. Tendonitis (ten-doh-NIGH-it is)
    • An inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
    • Note: tendinitis, tenonitis, and tenontitis all have the same meaning
  60. Adhesion (ad-HEE-zhun)
    A band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally.Can form in muscles or internal organs as the result of an injury or surgery
  61. Atrophy (AT-roh-fee)
    Weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures.

    Muscle atrophy can be caused by pathology or by disuse of the muscle over a long period of time
  62. Myalgia (my-AL-jee-ah)
    Muscle tenderness or pain
  63. Myolysis (my-OL-ih-sis)
    The degeneration of muscle tissue(Degeneration means deterioration or breaking down)
  64. Sacropenia (sar-koh-PEE-nee-ah)
    • The age-related reduction in skeletal muscle mass in the elderly
    • Includes loss of muscle strength, and function
  65. Atonic (Ah-TON-ick)
    Lacking normal tone or strength
  66. Dystonia (dis-TOH-nee-ah)
    A condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
  67. Spasmodic torticollis (spaz-MOD-ick tor-tih-KOL-is)
    • Stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
    • Spasmodic =means relating to a spasm Torticollis= means a contraction, or shortening, of the muscles of the neck
  68. Intermittent claudication
    Pain in the leg muscles that occurs in the leg during exercise and is relieved by rest
  69. Claudication
  70. Means limping
    This condition is caused by poor circulation in the leg
  71. Singultus (sing-GUL-tus)
    Also known as hiccups

    Myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm
  72. Myasthenia Gravis
    (my-as-THEE-nee-ah GRAH-vis)
    A chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles
  73. Myasthenia
    means muscle weakness
  74. Muscular Dystrophy
    A group of inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system

    Two of the most common forms are Duchenne’s and Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy
  75. Compartment Syndrome
    Involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles

    Can be caused by trauma, tight bandages or casts, or by repetitive activities such as running
  76. Ganglion Cyst (GANG-glee-on SIST)
    A harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist.

    Can be caused by repeated minor injuries

    Usually painless and does not require treatmentDo not confuse this use of the term ganglion here with the nerve ganglion
  77. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    Occurs when the tendons passing through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen, which creates pressure on the median nerve; causing pain, burning, and paresthesia in the fingers and handParesthesia= an abnormal sensation, such as burning, tingling, and numbness
  78. Paresthesia
    = an abnormal sensation, such as burning, tingling, and numbness
  79. Quadriplegia
    The paralysis of all four extremities
  80. Paralysis
    Loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply and can be temporary or permanent
  81. Myoparesis (my-oh-PAR-eh-sis)
    Weakness or slight paralysis of a muscle
  82. Hemiparesis
    Slight paralysis of one side of the body
  83. Hemiplegia (hem-ee-PLEE-jee-ah)
    The total paralysis of one side of the body
  84. Cardioplegia (kar-dee-oh-PLEE-jee-ah)
    Paralysis of the muscles of the heart
  85. Deep Tendon Reflexes
    Tested with reflex hammer used to strike a tendon
  86. Electromyography
    A diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

    Most frequently used when people have symptoms of weakness and examinations shows impaired muscle strength
  87. Fasciotomy (fash-ee-OT-oh-mee)
    A surgical incision through a fascia to relieve tension or pressure
  88. Fascioplasty (FASH-ee-oh-plas-tee)
    The surgical repair of a fascia
  89. Tenodesis (ten-ODD-eh-sis)
    The surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to bone
  90. Tenorrhaphy
    Surgical suturing together of the divided end of a tendon
  91. Tenolysis (ten-OL-ih-sis)
    To free a tendon from adhesions
  92. Tenectomy (teh-NECK-toh-mee)

    Also known as tenonectomy
    The surgical removal of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath
  93. Tenotomy

    Also known as tendotomy
    Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle, such as strabismus
  94. Myectomy (my-ECK-toh-mee)
    The surgical removal of a portion of a muscle
  95. Myorrhaphy (my-OR-ah-fee)
    The surgical suturing of a muscle wound
  96. A surgical incision into a muscle
    Myotomy (my-OT-oh-mee)

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