Card Set Information
mid Term review
Physical Distance Represented by
Latitude and Longitude :
use decimal degrees.
In this method, each degree is divided into a base ten system
1. is a method of dividing degrees into minutes and
- A circle can be divided into 360º
-A Degree can divided into 60 minutes (60’)
-A minute can be divided into 60 seconds
Incidence of Solar Radiation on Latitudes
Low angle of incoming sunlight (North Pole 60ºN,
Sunlight Directly overhead(30ºN Tropic of
Cancer, 0º Equater, Tropic of Capricorn 30ºS), Low angle of incoming
sunlight 60º South Pole)
a Line connecting all points at the same
is an angular or arc distance east or west of a point
on Earth’s surface measured from the center of Earth ,
A line connectin all points at the same
– is an angular or arc distance north or south
of the equator measured from the center of Earth.
Distribution of water
water is Primarily Ocean water, Groundwater, Lakes and Fresh water(Groundwater, polar ice, other ice &
snow, Lakes, Soil Moisture, Atmospheric Water, Marshes, Rivers and Biological
crust, Oceanic Crust & sedmentary Deposits) – it is part of the upper
mantle & consists of the oceanic crust, continental crust, and uppermost
mantle. Beneath the lithosphere is the asthenosphere. Sedimentary deposits are
commonly found at the boundaries between the continental and oceaninic crust.
The Soil layer is called the edaphosphere and generally covers Earth’s land
– when the rates of inputs and outputs in the
system are equal and the amounts of energy and matter in storage within the
system are constant the system is in steady- State equilibrium.
Which has the bad effect on nature and why
in natural system, such unchecked positive feedback growth can reach a critical
limit, leading to instability, disruption, or death of organisms. Global
climate change creates an example of positive feedback. (i.e. wildfires)
How to identify a positive feedback
– If Feedback information encourages increased response in the system, it is
Positive Feedback.(like good reviews affecting ticket sales for a movie) or a
negative feedback – The Feedback information discourages response in the
system, (like bad reviews affecting ticket sales), Such negative causes
self-regulation in a natural system , stabilizing the system.
System feedback loop
As a system opertates, it generates outputs that influence its own operations.
These outputs function as “information” that is returned to various points in
the system via pathways called FEEDBACK LOOPS.
How to identify an open system or a close system
ie. (Figure 1.4 Plant photosenythesis & respiration) The Photosynthesis, plants
use sunlight as an energy input and material inputs of water nutrients, and
carbon dioxide. The Photosynthetic process converts these inputs to stored
chemical energy in the form of plant sugars (carbohydrates). The process also
releases an ouput from the plant system
: the oxygen we breathe.
(No exchange of energy or matter)
Exchange of Energy but no exchange of matters
Exchange of Energy as well as matters across the
The Part of the universe whose properties are
under consideration, The system is separated from the rest of the Universe,
known as surrounding by a boundary whose properties can be defined.
How to calculate time on Earth
1. The basis of time is that Earth revolves 360º every
24 hours, or 15º per hour (360º + 24= 15º). Thus, a time zone of 1 hour is
established, spanning 7.5º on either side of a central meridian.
- Assuming it is
9:00 P.M. in Greenwich, then it is 4:00 P.M. in Baltimore(+5hr), 3:00 P.M. in
Oklahoma City (+6hr), 2:00 P.M. in Salt Lake City (+7hr, 1:00P.M. in Seattle
and Los Angles (+8hr), noon in Anchorage (+9hr), and 11:00 A.M. in Honolulu
International Date Line
1. An important corollary of the prime meridian is the
180º meridian on the opposite side of the planet. This meridian is the
Ingternational Date Line and Marks the Place where each day officially
begins(at 12:01 A.M.) From this “Line” the new day sweeps west-ward. This
westward movement of time is created by Earth’s turning eastward on its axis.
Normal lapse rate
When the temperature decreases with altitude. 3.5º F/1000 ft. 6.4ºC/ 1000m
refers to the passage of shortwave and longwave energy through either the atmosphere or water.
Is the changing of direction of lights movement w/out altering its wavelength
is a portion of energy that bounces directly back into space w/out being absorbed.
is the change in speed and direction of light
is the assimilation of radiation molecules of matter and its conversion from one form of energy to another.
Why is the Sky blue?
because the lighter blue is being scattered from the visible spectrum because it is a shorter wavelength.
Why are the Clouds white?
Clouds are white because their water droplets or ice
crystals are large enough to scatter the light of the visible spectrum which combines
to produce white light.
The color of sea water is blue – Why?
Blue wavelengths are absorbed the least by the deep ocean
water and are scattered and reflected back to the observer’s eye.
False image (like mirage) due to refraction
Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium
where its speed is different. The refraction of light when it passes from a
fast medium to a slow medium bends the light ray toward the normal to the
boundary between the two media. The amount of bending depends on the indices of
refraction of the two media (eg – Mirage is a refraction effect).
Albedo– reflectivity of different surfaces
The albedo of an object is the extent to which it reflects
light, defined as the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation.
It is a unitless measure indicative of a surface's or body's diffuse
Visible energy from the sun passes through the glass and
heats the ground. Infrared energy from the ground is partly reflected by the
glass and some is trapped inside the greenhouse.
Cloud’s greenhouse forcing
absorb and reradiate longwave radiation emitted by Earth; some longwave energy
returns to space and some is radiated toward the surface.
A pan of water on the stove illustrates heat transfer.
Infrared energy radiates from the burner to the saucepan and the air. Energy
conducts through the molecules of the pan and the handle. The water physically
mixes, carrying heat energy by convection. The energy in the water and handle
is measurable as sensible heat. The vapor leaving the surface of the water
contains the latent heat absorbed in the change of water to water vapor.
Solar energy cascades through the lower atmosphere where it
is absorbed, reflected, and scattered. Clouds, atmosphere, and the surface
reflect 31% of this insolation back to space. Atmospheric gases and dust and
Earth's surface absorb energy and radiate longwave radiation. Over time, Earth
emits, on average, 69% of incoming energy to space. When added to Earth's
average albedo (31%, reflected energy), this equals the total energy input from
the Sun (100%).
1. The ratio of the image ona map to the real world; it
realtes a unit on the map to a similar unit on the ground. A 1:1 scale means
that a centimeter on the map represents a centimeter on the ground an
appropriate scale for a local map is1:24,000, in which 1 unit on the map
represents 24,000 identical units on the ground., Representative fraction
– Cartographers express map scale as
this; with either a colon or a slash, as in 1
: 125,000 or 1/125,000.
position on Earth
Latitude and longitude combine to make a
grid (geographic grid) that can be used to determine your location on Earth.
For greater precision, degrees of
latitude and longitude are divided into 60 minutes (symbolized by '), and
minutes are divided into 60 seconds (symbolized by ").
Maps are often marked with parallels and
meridians. The latitude and longitude of a point are called its coordinates. If
you know the coordinates, you can use a map to locate any point on Earth.
closest position to the Sun (Northern Hemisphere Winter January 3rd)
1. Earth’s farthest position to the Sun 152.083
Or 94.5 M mi (Northern Hemisphere Summer July 4)
the distance between corresponding points on any two successive waves
The number of waves
passing a fixed point in 1 second
composition of solar energy:
UV, X Ray, Gamma Ray=8% ,
Visible = 47% ,
Infrared = 45%
How do we see color?
green leaf- reflects green light and absorbs red and blue light, and the amounts of
light reflected and absorbed are dependent upon the amount of chlorophyll in
the leaf. ,blue ball etc)
Why do we see fall colors?
1.Daylight (white visible light) is made up of
numerous waves or impulses each having different dimensions or wavelengths.
When separated, any single wavelength will produce a specific color impression
to the human eye. What we actually see as color is known as its color effect. When an object is hit
(bombarded) with light rays, the object absorbs certain waves and reflects
others, this determines the color effect.
Uneven Distribution of Insolation
Differences in the angle of solar rays at each latitude result in an
uneven distribution of insolation and heating.)
Point on earth’s surface which receives insolation perpendicular to the
surface. During the year this point occur at lower latitude between tropic of
Cancer and tropic of Capricorn where the energy is more concentrated.
other than subsolar point?
1. All other places away from the subsolar point receiveinsolation at an angle less than 900 and thus experience morediffuse energy.
angle above horizon
latitude of the Subsolar point. It annually migrates through 470
of latitude (from Tropic of Cancer to Tropic of Capricorn…Find out the angular
and physical distance in miles,
duration of exposure
Effect of rotation
The Earth rotates from west to east or eastword. This cause Sun’s
apparent daily journey from sunrise in the east and sunset in the waste. Earth rotates on its
axis once every 24 hours
A revolution is also called a year. The Earth takes 365.25 days to revolve around the sun. It is during this year or revolution that
brings Earth it’s seasons,
Axial Tilt -
• Tilt of
Earth’s axis ;Axis is tilted 23.5° from plane of ecliptic, Axial
parallelism Axis maintains alignment during orbit around the Sun North pole points toward the North Star (Polaris)
Circle of Illumination
The Circle of Illumination is the boundary between
day and night. The edge of the sunlit hemisphere, which forms a circular
boundary separating the earth into a light half and a dark half.
Solstice and Equinox
1. Four days
during our calendar year — two solstices and two equinoxes — mark the
beginnings of the four seasons. At the extremes are the winter and summer
solstices, with the vernal and autumnal equinoxes occupying the midpoints.
The solstices and equinoxes also mark four important points in Earth's
orbit around the Sun. It's Earth's position in its orbit — and the orientation
of its tilted axis at these points in its orbit — that defines the seasons.
The solstices are six months apart and mark the days when the northern
and southern hemispheres receive either maximum (summer) or minimum (winter)
sunshine. In the north, the summer solstice, usually around June 21, is the
longest day of the year; the winter solstice, six months later, is the shortest
day of the year.
equinoxes occur roughly midway between the solstices
: the autumnal equinox in
September and spring equinox in March. At these times, day and night are
roughly of equal length.
How to determine daylength
is the interval between sunrise and the sunset.
It is the most obvious way of sensing change in season at latitudes away from the
(hetero – not uniform)
– Its gases are not evenly mixed
-- outer atmosphere
km (50 mi) outward, to thermosphere
of gases sorted by gravity. It is organized in layers based on the weight of
• (homo - uniform)
—It is an even mixture of gases, “air.”
– inner atmosphere
– Surface to 80km (50 mi)
– Gases evenly blended
Components of Homosphere
NITROGEN, OXYGEN, ARGON & CARBON DIOXIDE
The reasons of temperature change at different levels of atmosphere
variations in the four layers are due to the way solar energy is absorbed as it
moves downward through the atmosphere. The Earth’s surface is the primary absorber of
solar energy. Some of this energy is reradiated by the Earth as heat, which warms the
overlying troposphere. The global average temperature in the troposphere rapidly
decreases with altitude until the tropopause, the boundary between the troposphere and
the stratosphere. The temperature begins to increase with altitude in the stratosphere. This warming is
caused by a form of oxygen called ozone (O3) absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the
sun. Ozone protects us from most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation, which can cause
cancer, genetic mutations, and sunburn. Scientists are concerned that human activity is
contributing to a decrease in stratospheric ozone. Nitric oxide, which is the exhaust of
high- flying jets, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used as refrigerants, may
contribute to ozone depletion. At the stratopause, the temperature stops increasing with altitude. The overlying
mesosphere does not absorb solar radiation, so the temperature decreases with altitude.
At the mesopause, the temperature begins to increase with altitude, and this trend
continues in the thermosphere. Here solar radiation first hits the Earth’s atmosphere and
heats it. Because the atmosphere is so thin, a thermometer cannot measure the
temperature accurately and special instruments are needed.
Good ozone and bad ozone-
ozone is found in the
stratosphere, a layer of air way up in the atmosphere. The stratosphere is
between 8 and 30 miles above the ground - too far away for you to breathe any
of its air! The ozone in this layer of air protects plants, animals, and us by
blocking the most harmful rays of the sun.
ground-level ozone) is found in the
tropospheric, which is the layer of air closet to Earth’s surface. The
troposphere is the air from the ground to about 8 miles up into the
atmosphere- it’s the air we breathe.
Ozone does not naturally occur at harmful levels in the troposphere. Our
ground-level ozone problems are caused by human activities. Read “Hot Summer Days” to learn
how humans cause “bad ozone”