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Infants _______ their birth weight by 6 months
Infants double their birth weight by 6 months
Infants _______ their birth weight by 1 year
Infants triple their birth weight by 1 year
Infants increase their height ____ in the first year
Infants increase their height 50% in the first year.
By the end of the first year, the brain is already _________ of it's adult size.
By the end of the first year, the brain is already two-thirds of it's adult size.
Chest circumfrence gains 2cm to equal head circumfrence by _____.
Chest circumfrence gains 2cm to equal head circumfrence by 12months (maybe even 6mo)
Heart rate changes during childhood
- Fetus/Newborn: 120-160
- Infants: 100-120
- Toddler: 90-100
- Preschooler: 80-90
- School-age: 70-80
Blood pressure changes during childhood
- Newborn: 80/40
- Infant/Toddler/Preschooler: 100/60
- School-age: 112/60
(shows the heart is becoming more efficient)
Respiratory rate slows from _____ to _____ in the first year
Respiratory rate slows from 30-60 breaths to 20-30 breaths in the first year
Why do infants easily get upper respiratory infections?
The lumen (tubal cavity) is small and doesn't have much mucus to clear out germs.
Infant's gastrointestinal tract:
- lacks amylase, needed to digest carbohydrates
- can digest protein, to a point
Infants's liver and kidney systems:
immature, may not process medication efficiently
Infant's immune system is functional at ___
Infant's immune system is functional 2mo
from head to toe
Ventral suspension position development
- when held horizontally, in midair:
- newborn allows the head to hang
- 1mo lifts head momentarily
- 2mo holds the head on the same plane as the body
Prone position development
- newborns can turn their head from side to side for easier breathing
- 2mo can lift their head and turn, can maintain position
- 3mo can lift head and shoulders
- 4mo can lift head, shoulders, and chest, and roll front to back
- 9mo can creep
- when an infant turn the head to the side, the shoulders, trunk, and pelvis turn in that direction, too, rolling sideways
- from lying on their front to their back
- happens at 4 months
Sitting position development
- 1-3mo had head lag (doesn't pick up head when being lifted into sitting position), needs to be propped
- 4mo has no head lag
- 6mo can sit momentarily without support
- 8mo can sit independently
Standing position development
- 3mo try to support part of their weight
- 9mo can stand while holding onto a support
- 11mo can "cruise" - walk while holding onto objects
- ability to bring thumb and fingers together
- develops at 4mo
How old is an infant when they can start to hold a spoon and feed themselves?
How old is an infant when they can transfer toys between hands?
- ability to bring thumb and first finger together
- occurs at 10mo
Infants can draw in a semistraight line at _____
Infants can draw in a semistraight line at 12mo.
- 1mo - cooing sounds
- 2mo - differentiate a cry
- 4mo - very "talkative"
- 5mo - vowel sounds "goo-goo"
- 9mo - first word "da-da"
- 12mo - put two words together
- 4mo need room to move and roll
- 5mo need objects to explore
- 8mo sensitive to textures
- 10mo peek-a-boo
- 1-2mo midline, center focus
- 3mo can track things (hand regard)
- 4mo recognize familiar objects
- 6mo depth perception, reaching
- 10mo object permanence
- 3-4mo will turn towards sound
- 10mo can recognize name
- 4mo recognize primary caregiver
- 6-7mo fear of strangers
- 9mo very aware of tone of voice
fear of strangers
Car seat safety
- rear-facing car seat until 20lbs AND 1yr
- 5 point harness until 40lbs
When do infants begin teething?
Introducing solid foods
- recommend continuing nursing for 1 full year
- introduce foods 1 at a time, 1 per week
- 5-6mo fortified rice cereal w/ breastmilk
- then veggies, fruit, meat and egg yolk
- a paroxysmal (sudden attack) abdominal pain
- generally occurs in infants under 3 months
- loud, intense crying
prickly heat rash
- carbohydrate in formula solutions demineralize tooth enamel until tooth decays
- teach parents not to put the baby to bed with a bottle (especially full of milk)
- replace milk with warm water if necessary to sleep
- forward curve of the spine at the sacral area
- occurs in young toddlers, they then grow out of it
- the side-by-side play of toddlers
- haven't yet learned how to play with other children
- provide duplicate toys to avoid arguments
18-24mo toddlers can remember an action and imitate it later
toddlers cannot change their thoughts to fit a situation, so they change their perception of a situation to fit their thoughts
Toddler's feeding habits...
- Toddler's feeding habits are less than an infant, due to their decreased growth rate
- (maintain whole milk until 2yrs old)
Physical growth of a preschooler...
- future body types become apparent - extomorphic (slim) or endomorphic (large)
- right/left handedness becomes apparent
Children should have all 20 deciduous teeth by age __
Children should have all 20 deciduous teeth by age 3
Children can differentiate between real and imaginary when they are _________
Children can differentiate between real and imaginary when they are preschoolers
Oedipus and Electra complexes
- Oedipus complex: an emotional attachment a preschool boy has towards his mother; competes with his father
- Electra complex: an emotional attachment a preschool girl has towards her father; competes with her mother
How old are children when they begin to enjoy competitive play?
10 year old
Elements of concrete operational thought:
- class inclusion
develops in school-age
Formal operational thought
- the ability to think in abstract terms and use the scientific method to arrive at conclusions
- begins at age 12 or 13
fetal growth from ovulation to fertilization
fetal growth from fertilization to implantation
fetal growth from implantation to 5-8 weeks
fetal growth from 5-8 weeks until term
- a hollow sphere of cells that forms early in fetal development
- attaches to the uterine endometrium
- the outer layer of the blastocyst
- cells in the outer ring and will become the placenta and membranes
- after fertilization, the endometrium grows in thickness and vascularity
- called the decidua
Erikson's psychosocial stages
- Infant: trust vs. mistrust
- Toddler: autonomy vs. shame/doubt
- Preschooler: initiative vs. guilt
- School-age: industry vs. inferiority
- Adolescents: identity vs. role confusion
Freud's psychosexual stages
- Infant: oral
- Toddler: anal
- Preschooler: phallic
- School-age: latent (dormant)
- Adolescent: genital
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
- Infant: sensorimotor (object permanence)
- Toddler: preoperational (learn to represent objects with words, images, drawings. Egocentric)
- Preschooler: preoperational (intuitive thought, lacks conservation, lacks reversilibity, use assimilation/accomodation, egocentric)
- School-age: concrete operational thought
- Adolescent: formal operational thought (abstract)
What age to infants develop object permanence?
What age can infants recognize familiar people/objects?
What age can infants try to support their own weight?
What age do infants begin to "cruise"?
When can an infant recognize their own name?
- primary circular reaction: 3mo explores environment with hands and mouth
- secondary circular reaction: 6mo understands that actions can initiate pleasurable sensations
- coordination of secondary schema: 10mo develops object permanence
- tertiary circular reaction: 12-18mo toddler is a "little scientist"
- the absence of ovulation
- most common cause of subfertility in women
the implantatino of uterine endometrium that have spread from the interior of the uterus to locations outside the uterus
McDonald's rule of symphysis-fundal height
the distance from the uterine fundus to the symphysis pubis in centimeters is equal to the week of gestation between the 20th and 31st weeks of pregancy
Rhythm strip testing
- assessment of the fetal heart rate for baseline rate and the degree of variability present
- should jump 20bpm when infant moves, showing variability
measures the response of the fetal heart rate to fetal movement
At what age can infants start eating solid food?