Organization of UE
Card Set Information
Organization of UE
Which artery is used for measuring blood pressure?
Which artery is used for taking the pulse?
What vein is commonly used for drawing blood?
Median cubital vein
What artery helps to supply the shoulder?
Branches of the subclavian artery in the root of the neck
What are the subdivisions of the upper extremity (6)?
2. Arm or brachium
3. Elbow and cubital fossa
4. Forearm or antebrachium
5. Wrist or carpus
What regions compose the shoulder?
1. Scapular region
2. Deltoid region
3. Pectoral region
4. Axilla or armpit
What regions compose the hand?
a. thumb or pollex
b. fingers - index, middle, ring, and little
What components does the skeleton of the upper extremity include (6)?
1. Shoulder or pectoral girdle
3. Radius and ulna
4. Carpals (8)
5. Metacarpals (5)
6. Phalanges (14)
What bones make up the shoulder or pectoral girdle?
What are the 8 carpal bones?
(lateral to medial)
: (1) scaphoid, (2) lunate, (3) triquetrum, (4) pisiform
: (1) trapezium, (2) trapezoid, (3) capitate, (4) hamate
How do the phalanges differ between the thumb and the fingers?
Thumb - proximal and distal phalanges
Each finger - proximal, middle, and distal phalanges
What joints are included in the upper extremity (12)?
1. sternoclavicular joint
2. acromioclavicular joint
3. shoulder joint or glenohumeral joint
4. elbow joint or humeroradial joint
5. humeroulnar joints
6. radioulnar joints
7. wrist joint or radiocarpal joint
8. intercarpal joints
9. midcarpal joint
10. carpometacarpal (CMC) joints
11. metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints
12. interphalangeal (IP) joints
What are the regions of a radioulnar joint?
proximal, middle (interosseous membrane), and distal
How do the interphalangeal (IP) joints differ between the thumb and the fingers?
Thumb - one IP joint
Each finger - proximal and distal IP joints
What movements can the scapula
(and clavicle at the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints)
3. protraction (abduction)
4. retraction (adduction)
5. upward rotation
6. downward rotation
Describe scapular elevation.
bringing the scapula toward the head (shrugging the shoulder up)
Describe scapular depression.
lowering the scapula
Describe scapular protraction.
abduction - moving the scapula away from the vertebral column as in reaching and pushing
Describe scapular retraction.
adduction - moving the scapula back toward the vertebral column
Describe upward rotation of the scapula.
When the arm is raised (abducted), the inferior angle moves laterally and the glenoid cavity moves upward
Describe downward rotation of the scapula.
When the arm is lowered (adducted), the inferior angle moves medially and the glenoid cavity moves downward
What movements can the arm
(humerus at the shoulder joint)
6. medial or internal rotation
7. lateral or external rotation
8. horizontal abduction
9. horizontal adduction
Describe arm flexion.
forward movement of the arm
Describe arm extension.
backward movement of the arm
Describe arm abduction.
raising the arm laterally away from the body
Describe arm adduction.
bringing the arm toward the side
Describe arm circumduction.
a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction, so that the hand describes a circle
Describe medial or internal rotation of the arm.
a rotation about its long axis so that the anterior surface of the arm is turned inward toward the body
Decribe lateral or external rotation of the arm.
turning the anterior surface of the arm outward
Describe horizontal abduction.
a transverse-plane motion that the arm moves horizontally backward and outward from a starting position of
90º of shoulder flexion
Describe horizontal adduction.
a transverse-plane motion that the arm moves horizontally forward and inward from a starting position of
90º of shoulder abduction
Where do horizontal abduction and adduction both occur?
with the arm at 90º of flexion
What movements can the forearm
(radius and ulna at the elbow joint (2 movements) and radioulnar joints (2 movements))
Describe elbow joint flexion of the forearm.
bending the elbow or decreasing the angle between forearm and arm
Describe elbow joint extension of the forearm.
straightening the elbow or increasing the angle between forearm and arm
Decribe radioulnar joint pronation of the forearm.
turning the palm of the hand down with the elbow flexed 90º
Describe radioulnar joint supination of the forearm.
turning the palm up
What movements can the hand
(radiocarpal and midcarpal joints)
3. ulnar deviation
4. radial deviation
Describe hand flexion.
bending the palm toward the anterior surface of the forearm
Describe hand extension.
bending the dorsum of the hand toward the posterior surface of the forearm
Describe ulnar deviation of the hand.
adduction - movement toward the ulnar side in the plane of the extended hand
Describe radial deviation of the hand.
abduction - movement toward radial side.
Describe circumduction of the hand.
combination of flexion, extension, ulnar deviation, and radial deviation
so that the hand describes a circle
Flexion and extension of the fingers takes place in what plane?
Describe finger flexion.
Bending the fingers.
Describe finger extension.
Straightening the fingers.
Finger abduction and adduction occur in what plane?
Describe finger abduction.
Spreading the fingers apart
Describe finger adduction
Bringing the fingers together
What movements can the hand (metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints) perform?
Why is the thumb positioned differently than the fingers?
During evolution the thumb rotated 90 degrees medially with respect to the fingers.
What movements can the thumb (CMC, MCP, and IP joints) perform?
Thumb flexion and extension takes place in what plane?
frontal plane (parallel to the plane of the palm)
Describe thumb flexion.
Bending the thumb toward the palm.
Describe thumb extension.
movement away from the palm.
Thumb abduction and adduction takes place in what plane?
sagittal plane (perpendicular to the plane of the palm)
Describe thumb abduction.
Raising the thumb away from the palm.
Describe thumb adduction.
Bringing the thumb back toward the palm.
Describe thumb opposition.
Bringing the pad of the thumb in contact with the pad of a finger.
Thumb opposition is a combination of what movements?
abduction and flexion with medial rotation of the CMC joint, AND flexion of the MCP and IP joints
(medial rotation = "making a 4")