social science people

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social science people
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  1. Bennett, Michael
    Historian; described the G.I. Bill’s expansion of suburbs
  2. Berle, Adolf
    Brain trust member who criticized big business
  3. Bernanke, Ben
    Current chair of the Federal Reserve Board; demonstrated that bank failures harm small businesses by reducing the amount of available credit
  4. Bernstein, Michael
    Economic historian who argues that the Great Depression occurred because new technology revolutionized the economy
  5. Brown, Cary
    Economist who proved that federal spending surpassed contracted state and local expenditures in two years between 1933 and 1940
  6. Currie, Laughlin
    Part of an informal council of economic advisors during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency
  7. Eccles, Marriner
    Keynesian economist who served as Federal Reserve chair; supported underconsumption theory even when it was still unpopular
  8. Fisher, Irving
    Famous economist who believed that stock prices would be permanently high; supported the use of scrip
  9. Foster, William T.
    Former college president; co-wrote The Road to Plenty with Waddill Catchings, a book that claimed raising government spending could eliminate underconsumption
  10. Friedman, Milton
    Economist who won the Nobel Prize in economics; believed that the Federal Reserve did “too little, too late” to stop the Great Depression
  11. Galbraith, John Kenneth
    Historian and economist who largely blames the Federal Reserve for the Great Depression; part of an informal council of economic advisors during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency
  12. Hansen, Alvin
    Economist who believed in mature capitalism; one of Keynes’s American disciples
  13. Heller, Walter
    Council of Economic Advisors chair; suggested that Lyndon Johnson raise taxes because of the Vietnam War’s high cost
  14. Jackson, Kenneth
    Urban historian who noted the Federal Housing Administration seemed to endorse segregation and prejudice by labeling many black areas as red-lined neighborhoods
  15. Keynes, John Maynard
    Economist who first proposed that underconsumption caused the Great Depression
  16. Keyserling, Leon
    Member of the early Council of Economic Advisors; supported the New Deal and labor movement
  17. Kuznets, Simon
    Winner of the Nobel Prize in economics and father of national income accounting; supported the maldistribution thesis by showing that during the 1920s, the rich grew richer while the poor grew poorer
  18. Laffer, Arthur
    Ronald Reagan’s chief economist; demonstrated his supply-side beliefs by claiming that high taxes hinder growth
  19. Leuchtenburg, William E.
    New Deal historian who referred to Roosevelt as the “first modern president”
  20. Lynd, Helen
    Half of the sociologist couple who investigated a rising interest in public affairs in Muncie, Indiana
  21. Lynd, Robert
    Half of the sociologist couple who investigated a rising interest in public affairs in Muncie, Indiana
  22. Marx, Karl
    Philosopher and social scientist whose ideas formed the basis for socialism; foresaw and explained the Great Depression
  23. Means, Gardiner
    Part of an informal council of economic advisors during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency
  24. Nourse, Edwin
    First chair of the Council of Economic Advisors; a conservative economist
  25. Samuelson, Paul
    American Keynesian economist that supported expansionary policy during recessions and contractionary policy during times of inflation
  26. Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr.
    Historian who divided the New Deal into a first and second New Deal; noted that the Home Owners Loan Corporation garnered much middle class support for the New Deal
  27. Schumpeter, Joseph
    Austrian economist who coined the term “creative destruction”
  28. Schwartz, Anna
    Researcher who worked with Milton Friedman; worked with him to calculate real interest rates during the Great Depression
  29. Sweezy, Alan
    Part of an informal council of economic advisors during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency
  30. Tugwell, Rexford
    Economist who served as director of the Resettlement Administration; nationalist who believed that welfare should be consistent across the nation
  31. Von Hayek, Friedrich
    Austrian economist who claimed that the Federal Reserve’s interference prevented market forces from reaching equilibrium
  32. Williams, William Appleman
    Historian who asserted that the expansion of international markets fueled American pursuit of good foreign relations
  33. Catchings, Waddill
    Industrial financier; co-wrote The Road to Plenty with William T. Foster, a book in which they argued that raising government spending could eliminate underconsumption
  34. DuPont family
    Leaders of major American companies; members of the American Liberty League
  35. Filene, Edward A.
    Department store owner who understood the need for cooperation between big business and government
  36. Ford, Henry
    Creator of the assembly line and an entrepreneur who dabbled in public utilities; opposed unions
  37. Insull, William
    Public utility investor whose holding company failed, leading Americans to favor a government-run utilities project
  38. Merrill, Charles
    Founder of Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, and Smith; abolished the practice of commissions of sales staff
  39. Mitchell, Charles A.
    Banker from the National City Bank who disapproved of the Federal Reserve’s tight money policy and wanted to increase the amount of money in the broker’s loan market
  40. Ponzi, Charles
    Boston vegetable salesman, forger, smuggler, and con artist; namesake of Ponzi schemes
  41. Rockefellers
    Family who owned Standard Oil; fruitlessly made a $50 million purchase in order to maintain Standard Oil stock prices
  42. Schwab, Charles
    Stockbroker; one of the first businessmen to sell investment portfolios
  43. Sloan, Alfred P.
    General Motors market director who gave cars attractive features, including different designs, colors, self-starters, and windshield wipers
  44. Warner, Jack
    Movie tycoon who understood the need for cooperation between big business and government
  45. Bethune, Mary McLeod
    Eminent educator who headed the National Youth Administration division of African American affairs
  46. Black, Hugo
    Supreme Court Justice from Alabama; appointed by Roosevelt to fill the spot left by Van Devanter
  47. Brandeis, Louis
    Lawyer who was part of the National Resources Board; later became a Supreme Court Justice who believed in judicial restraint
  48. Bush, George H.W.
    • Reagan’s vice president and Republican president from 1989 to 1993;
    • advocate of small government
  49. Butler, Pierce
    Supreme Court Justice during the New Deal; one of the four horsemen of the apocalypse
  50. Cardozo, Benjamin
    Supreme Court Justice during the New Deal; believed in judicial restraint
  51. Carter, Jimmy
    Democratic president from 1977 to 1981
  52. Cermak, Anton
    Mayor of Chicago; informed a House committee that Hoover had to decide between financial relief or army mobilization
  53. Chamberlain, Neville
    British prime minister; supported the policy of appeasement
  54. Cleveland, Grover
    Democratic president from 1885 to 1889 and 1893 to 1897
  55. Collier, John
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs under Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration; formerly a social worker
  56. Coolidge, Calvin
    Republican president from 1923 to 1929 who oversaw tax cuts for upper income families and individuals
  57. Daladier, Edouard
    French premier; supported the policy of appeasement
  58. Dies, Martin
    Texas Representative; chair of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, which accused the FAP of spreading communist propaganda
  59. Douglas, William
    Lawyer who was part of the National Resources Board; later became a Supreme Court Justice
  60. Eisenhower, Dwight D.
    Republican president from 1953 to 1961 who did not approve of new economic innovations
  61. Franco, Francisco
    Fascist general who triumphed over the Spanish republican government, partially due to American neutrality
  62. Frankfurter, Felix
    New Deal administrator who was skeptical of an overly strong federal government
  63. Harding, Warren G.
    Republican president from 1921 to 1923
  64. Hawley, Willis C.
    Half of the legislative pair that proposed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff
  65. Hitler, Adolf
    Leader of the National Socialist Party in Germany; expanded his control of the country by stifling dissent and giving Jews only second class citizenship
  66. Hoover, Herbert
    Secretary of commerce and United States president; asked businesses to maintain price levels and insisted on a balanced federal budget
  67. Hopkins, Harry
    Head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Works Progress Administration; maximized employment rather than efficiency in public works projects
  68. Hughes, Charles Evan
    Chief Justice appointed by Hoover; a swing vote on the issue of economic regulation
  69. Hurley, Patrick
    Hoover’s Secretary of War who cleared occupied buildings during the Bonus Expeditionary Force’s protest
  70. Ickes, Harold
    Director of the Public Works Administration
  71. Jackson, Andrew
    Democratic president from 1829 to 1837 who worked to dismantle the United States Bank in the 1830s
  72. Johnson, Lyndon Baines
    Democratic president from 1963 to 1969 who served as a member of the National Resources Board
  73. Kai-shek, Chiang
    Leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party; fought Communists and the Japanese
  74. Kennedy, John F.
    Democratic president from 1961 to 1963 who wanted to run a budget deficit by raising spending and reducing taxes at the same time
  75. Kennedy, Joseph P.
    Businessman appointed by Roosevelt to lead the Securities andExchange Commission
  76. Landon, Alfred
    Republican presidential candidate in 1936; not a popular choice for his party due to his progressive attitude and acceptance of the New Deal
  77. Lemke, William
    Union Party presidential candidate during the 1936 elections; a populist who believed Roosevelt was not liberal enough
  78. Lincoln, Abraham
    Republican president from 1861 to 1865 who won the 1864 presidential election by a wide margin due to the secession of the southern states
  79. Long, Huey
    Governor of Louisiana during the late 1920s whose populist beliefs secured a great deal of support for him; assassinated in September 1935
  80. McReynolds, James
    Supreme Court Justice during the New Deal; one of the four horsemen of the apocalypse
  81. Mendieta, Carlos
    Cuban politician who seized power after the American navy suppressed the revolution led by Grau San Martin
  82. Merriam, Frank
    Republican gubernatorial candidate who supported Francis Townsend’s pension plan idea
  83. Morgenthau, Henry Jr.
    Secretary of the Treasury who was skeptical of an overly strong federal government
  84. Mussolini, Benito
    Fascist dictator of Italy who invaded Ethiopia
  85. Norris, George
    Progressive Republican senator from Nebraska who supported a dam project for irrigation and the generation of electricity
  86. Pecora, Ferdinand
    Member of the Senate committee who harshly interrogated J.P. Morgan about why he had not paid income taxes
  87. Perkins, Frances
    Roosevelt’s secretary of labor who was the first woman in the Presidential Cabinet; supported pension plans
  88. Rayburn, Sam
    Political dealmaker who was part of the National Resources Board
  89. Reagan, Ronald
    Republican president from 1981 to 1989 who abolished many New Deal reforms despite adopting Roosevelt’s personal style
  90. Roberts, Owen
    Justice appointed by Hoover; a swing vote on the issue of economic regulation
  91. Roosevelt, Eleanor
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s wife; civil rights activist
  92. Roosevelt, Franklin D.
    Democratic president from 1933 to 1945 who instituted the New Deal and led the United States in joining World War II
  93. Roosevelt, Theodore
    Republican president from 1901 to 1909 who promoted National Parks and employed power politics; inspired Franklin D. Roosevelt
  94. San Martin, Grau
    Leader of a Cuban revolution of intellectuals, laborers, and peasants
  95. Smith, Al
    Democratic presidential candidate in 1924
  96. Smoot, Reed
    Half of the legislative pair that proposed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff
  97. Stalin, Joseph
    Leader of the communist Soviet Union; repressed citizens in order to achieve major industrial growth
  98. Steagall, Henry
    Alabama Representative; contributed to the addition of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to the Glass-Steagall Banking Act
  99. Stone, Harlan
    Supreme Court Justice during the New Deal; believed in judicial restraint
  100. Sutherland, George
    Supreme Court Justice during the New Deal; one of the four horsemen of the apocalypse
  101. Truman, Harry
    Democratic president from 1945 to 1953 who proposed the Fair Deal
  102. Van Devanter, Willis
    Supreme Court Justice during the New Deal; one of the four horsemen of the apocalypse
  103. Vandenberg, Arthur
    Michigan Senator; contributed to the addition of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to the Glass-Steagall Banking Act
  104. Vargas, Getulio D.
    Nationalist president of Brazil; supported by the middle class due to his pro-industrial beliefs
  105. Wagner, Robert
    New York senator who served as National Labor Board chair; proposed a new bill in order to protect laborers from corporations
  106. Wallace, Henry A.
    Nationalist who wanted standardized welfare across the United States
  107. Wilson, Woodrow
    Democratic president from 1913 to 1921 who segregated federal offices; thought of Hoover as an ideal successor and mentored Franklin D. Roosevelt
  108. Zedong, Mao
    Leader of Chinese Communists who fought against Chiang Kai-shek
  109. Alger, Horatio
    19th-century author who wrote many novels narrating rags-to-riches stories
  110. Chase, Stuart
    Amateur economist and author of A New Deal; wrote that Americans lived with a new “economy of abundance”
  111. Ellison, Ralph
    Writer supported by the Federal Arts Project
  112. Faulkner, William
    Southern writer who examined the suffering of southerners, which was caused by their history of slavery and the loss of the Civil War
  113. Hearst, William Randolph
    Conservative publisher who dreaded a communist takeover
  114. Hickok, Lorena
    Reporter who commented on how federal aid helped poor women
  115. Hook, Sidney
    Writer who stated that capitalism degraded people and ideas “by setting a cash value on them”
  116. Howe, Louis McHenry
    New York journalist who acted as Roosevelt’s publicity manager and advisor for 22 years
  117. Lippman, Walter
    Columnist who felt disappointed when Roosevelt abandoned the League of Nations in order to appease isolationists
  118. Pringle, Henry
    Journalist; during the 1920 presidential campaign, noticed Roosevelt’s charisma and good health but not his ideas and arguments
  119. Raskob, John Jacob
    Writer of the article “Everybody Ought to Be Rich,” which the Ladies Home Journal published
  120. Sinclair, Upton
    California author who wrote The Jungle; used his popularity to run for governor unsuccessfully with his End Poverty In California platform
  121. Soule, George
    One of the earliest columnists to argue that the economic policy’s main goals should be high wages and high purchasing power
  122. Steinbeck, John
    Author of The Grapes of Wrath, which revealed the cruelty of California grape growers
  123. Anderson, Marian
    Globally famous African-American opera singer whom the Daughters of the American Revolution refused the right to sing in Constitution Hall
  124. Astaire, Fred
    Musical comedy star
  125. Barrow, Clyde
    Western criminal and auto bandit; partner of Bonnie Park
  126. Benny, Jack
    Radio comedian
  127. Bridges, Harry
    Leader of the International Longshoremen’s Association; organized the San Francisco General Strike
  128. Burns, George
    Radio comedian
  129. Cagney, James
    Famous actor who starred in both Public Enemy and G-Men
  130. Capone, Al
    Mafia boss who led the Chicago Outfit
  131. Capra, Frank
    Director who examined political corruption in Mr. Deeds Goes to a Town and Mr. Smith goes to Washington
  132. Corcoran, Thomas
    Lawyer who served on the National Resources Board
  133. Coughlin, Charles Edward Priest famous for his radio show “The Golden Hour of the Little Flower”; railed against both communism and big business
  134. Delano, Sara
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s mother who was his father’s second wife; married her husband when she was 26 and he was 52
  135. Dillinger, John
    Western bank robber and auto bandit
  136. Floyd, Charles
    Western bandit; known as “Pretty Boy” Floyd
  137. Frank, Jerome
    Lawyer who served on the National Resources Board Social Science Power Guide | 156
  138. Green, William
    President of the American Federation of Labor; opposed public works projects
  139. Hardy, Andy
    A fictional character in nine moves produced by MGM; experienced no problems that his father could not fix
  140. Karpis, Alvin
    Western bandit
  141. Lange, Dorothea
    Photographer hired by the Farm Security Administration to record the suffering of workers employed by large plantations
  142. Lewis, John L.
    Leader of the United Mine Workers; formed the Congress of Industrial Organizations after conflict with the American Federation of Labor at an Atlantic City convention
  143. Lindbergh, Charles
    Pilot who flew nonstop from New York to Paris in 1927; the kidnapping and death of his infant son prompted reform of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
  144. Macarthur, Douglas
    General who would ultimately become famous for his efforts in World War II and the Korean War; stopped the Bonus Army protest
  145. Mercer, Lucy
    Eleanor Roosevelt’s social secretary; Franklin Roosevelt’s mistress
  146. Park, Bonnie
    Clyde Barrow’s partner in crime
  147. Pollock, Jackson
    Artist supported by the Federal Arts Project
  148. Randolph, Asa Philip
    Leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; proposed a March on Washington to protest segregation
  149. Reeve, Arthur
    Radio journalist; represented pre-New Deal disillusionment with the financial and political elite
  150. Reuther, Walter
    An organizer of the United Automobile Workers; future union president who was physically harmed by police at a Michigan protest
  151. Rogers, Ginger
    Musical comedy star
  152. Rooney, Mickey
    Actor; played the character of Andy Hardy in nine moves produced by MGM
  153. Roosevelt, James
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s father who served as town selectman and a member of the local state hospital board
  154. Salk, Jonas
    Medical researcher; developed a vaccine for poliomyelitis
  155. Superman
    Comic book hero and radio character; “man of steel” whom only Kryptonite and Lois Lane could weaken
  156. Townsend, Francis
    Doctor from Long Beach, California who developed the idea for an elderly pension plan
  157. Tracy, Dick
    Radio character on an adventure show
  158. West, Mae
    Actress known for sexual innuendo in the early 1930s
  159. Wright, Richard
    Writer supported by the Federal Arts Project
  160. Zangara, Giuseppe
    Italian construction worker who attempted to assassinate Roosevelt two weeks before his inauguration; fatally wounded Anton Cermak instead

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