theory

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Author:
sweetpea281
ID:
44955
Filename:
theory
Updated:
2010-10-25 23:02:05
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Description:
intraoral exam
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  1. t/f for an intraoral exam a checklist is best to be used for keeping record?
    false-no checklist
  2. why can't you use a checklist for record keeping on an intraoral exam?
    need space to write and take notes and describe
  3. what must be kept in the records of an intraoral exam?
    • complete description
    • follow-up exam
  4. in obtaining the history about a lesion what things must you ask the patient (5)
    • lesion known or unknown
    • first noticed
    • recurrence
    • duration, changes
    • symptoms
  5. what five things must you not when charting the location and extent?
    • location in relation to other structures
    • localized
    • generalized
    • single lesion
    • multiple
  6. what two things must be charted when documenting shape and size?
    • length and width
    • height
  7. how is the shape and size measured?
    mm with the probe
  8. what colors are common for a lesion?
    red, pink, white, red/white
  9. what colors are rare with a lesion
    purple, blue, gray, yellow, black and brown
  10. how do you describe the surface texture of a lesion?
    smooth or irregular
  11. what three things describe the consistancy
    • soft, spongy, resillient
    • hard
    • indurated
  12. define indurated
    abnormally hard
  13. what are the three types of blisterform? describe each
    • vesicle-white small 1 cm or less contains cirum
    • pustule-yellow fluid-medium more than 1 cm or less
    • bulla-large filled with fluid more than 1 cm, can contain blood
  14. what are the four types of nonblisterform? describe each
    • papule-less than 5mm (pinhead) solid pointed round or flat
    • nodule-bigger 1-5mm white or pink
    • tumor-2 cm or greater can be benign or malignant
    • plaque-large generalized white area, raised lesion broad flat top larger than 5 mm
  15. what are the two types of depressed lesions?
    • ulcer-concave, loss of continuity of epithelium, center gray or yellow with red border results from rupture of raised lesion. Usually means healing stage
    • erosion-bigger than plaque, shallow and doesn't go into epithelium
  16. what are the characteristics of a flat lesion?
    • single or multiple
    • regular or irregular
    • macule-flat lesion
  17. what is the number one defense for oral cancer?
    dental professional
  18. what is the main objective of the IO exam?
    detect oral cancer early
  19. where is the most common location for oral cancer?
    floor of mouth and lateral borders of the tongue
  20. what is the job of the dental hygienist in the oral cancer screening?
    identify abnormalities and bring to the attention of doctor, not our job to diagnose
  21. who can perform an oral cancer screening?
    • the patient (teach them)
    • dental team
  22. what do whiter areas of oral cancer look like?
    • filmy to thick
    • fissures, ulcers, indurations
    • leukoplakia
  23. what kind of cancer is white?
    leukoplakia
  24. describe leukoplakia
    • white patch or plaque
    • buccal mucosa
    • cannot be scraped off with gaze
    • fungus (antibiotics)
  25. t/f if a white patch scrapes off and is red underneath you note it and bring it to the attention of the doctor
    true
  26. describe a read area of oral cancer
    • velvety
    • small ulcers
    • erythroplakia
  27. describe erythroplakia
    red patch or plaque
  28. t/f palpation of an ulcer reveals induration
    true-hard nodule or is hard underneath
  29. t/f masses are below normal mucosa and can be palpated
    true-usually fixed not movable
  30. what is the pigmentation of early cancer?
    brown or black
  31. what are two diagnostic aids for detecting oral cancer
    • toluidine blue-stain tissues with a biopsy
    • chemiluminescence- a light used to show different tissues
  32. what is an excisional biopsy?
    entire lesion is removed
  33. what is an incisional biopsy
    sample of lesion is taken
  34. what are some indications to take a biopsy?
    • unusual lesions
    • 2 weeks without healing
    • mass-doesn't break the surface of epithelium
  35. who makes the decision to take a biopsy?
    the dentist
  36. what are the limitations of a cytologic smear
    • inefficient-when lesion is clearly pathologic
    • surface lesions-only
    • heavily keratinized lesions-can't get enough tissue
    • not exclusively diagnostic
    • false negatives
  37. what is a cytologic smear
    sample taken and put on slide
  38. what are the six results possible for a lab report?
    • unsatifactory-cells on slide not good enough
    • class I-normal
    • class II-atypical
    • class III-uncertain
    • class IV-probably for cancer
    • class V-positive for cancer
  39. with what results on the lab report would you refer the pt for a biopsy?
    class IV or V
  40. which result on a lab report would you reevaluate?
    class III
  41. what would you do if the results on the lab report were a class I or II
    monitor and take notes
  42. what would you do with a lab report that comes back negative?
    follow up and recheck if lesion is still there (can be a false negative)
  43. what are the four physical characteristics of a lesion to be noted?
    • size and shape
    • color
    • surface texture
    • consistency
  44. define neoplasm
    new growth of abnormal cells

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