Cardiopulmonary Phys

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Author:
scoop267
ID:
44994
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Cardiopulmonary Phys
Updated:
2010-10-27 16:07:15
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CP phys
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Exam 2 Terminology
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  1. Apnea
    Cessation of breathing
  2. Ataxic Breathing
    Disordered or irregular breathing
  3. Dyspnea
    Labored or difficult breathing
  4. Tachypnea
    Rapid breathing - (greater than 20 breaths per minute)
  5. Eupnea
    Normal breathing
  6. Cyanosis
    An abnormal blue coloration caused by increased amount of deoxygenated blood
  7. Patent
    Open - (airway or blood vessel)
  8. Hypoxemia
    Decreased arterial oxygen partial pressure
  9. Hypoxia
    Decreased tissue oxygen partial pressure
  10. Hyperpnea
    Increased ventilation with exercise
  11. Hyperventilation
    Increased ventilation without increased peripheral metabolism
  12. Hypercapnia
    Increased arterial CO2 partial pressure
  13. Hypocapnia
    Decreased arterial CO2 partial pressure
  14. Gay-Lussac's Law
    Direct relationship between gas pressure & temperature (with volume held constant)
  15. Charles Law
    The volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure. (with pressure held constant)
  16. Boyle's Law
    The volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure (with temperature held constant)
  17. Water Vapor Law
    • The volume of a gas varies directly with its water vapor content
    • 47 mm Hg is the water vapor pressure in normal lungs (constant)
  18. General Gas Law
    PV=nRT --> V=nRT/P
  19. Conducting airway
    (Upper respiratory Tract)
    • 1.Nose & mouth
    • 2.Nasopharynx
    • 3.Epiglottis
    • 4.Larynx
    • 5.Trachea
  20. Conducting Airways
    (Trachea-bronchial tract)
    • 1.Trachea
    • 2.Left & right bronchi
    • 3.Lobar bronchi
    • 4.Segmental bronchi
    • 5.Bronchioles
    • 6.Terminal bronchioles
  21. Airways: Respiratory Zone
    • 1.Respiratory bronchioles
    • 2.Alveolar ducts
    • 3.Alveolar sacs
  22. CV Regulation System
    Effectors
    • Heart
    • Vascular smooth muscle (arterioles & veins)
    • Kidneys
    • Bone Marrow
  23. CV Regulation System
    Central Controller (Brain Stem)
    • Cardiac center
    • -Cardiostimulatory center
    • ~Activate Sympathetic/deactivate parasympathetic nerves

    • -Cardioinhibitory center
    • ~Deactivate Sympathetic/ activate parasympathetic nerves

    -Vasomotor center – collection of neurons that specialize in activating vascular smooth muscle, which are innervated by sympathetic nerves
  24. 3 Types of Capillaries
    • Continuous
    • Discontinuous
    • Fenestrated
  25. Capillaries
    Continuous
    • Muscles
    • Lungs
    • Fat
  26. Capillaries
    Discontinuous
    • Liver
    • Bone
    • Spleen
  27. Capillaries
    Fenestrated
    • Kidneys
    • Intestines
  28. Transcapillary exchange:
    Pinocytosis
    means cell drinking. Pieces of the plasmalemma pinches off and captures substances. Relatively large lipid-insoluble material
  29. Transcapillary exchange:
    Diffusion
    primary way stuff is moved across the capillary. Function of chemical gradient
  30. Transcapillary exchange:
    Filtration/absorption
    movement of plasma or water and whatever is dissolved or suspended in that substance (movement of fluid from outside to inside the capillary)
  31. Factors Affecting Capillary Diffusion
    • Concentration gradient (high concentration to lower concentration)
    • Surface area
    • Permeability
  32. Primary Factors Affecting Coronary Blood Flow
    • Aortic pressure
    • Myocyte metabolismExtrava
    • scular compression
    • Neural and neurohumoral factors
    • Viscosity of blood
  33. Hypoxemia
    reduced oxygen in systemic arterial blood
  34. Hypoxia
    reduced oxygen in tissues
  35. Anoxia
    complete lack of oxygen
  36. Myocardial hibernation
    significant coronary occlusion where the metabolism slows down in an attempt to preserve itself (reversible)
  37. Coronary stealing
    effect of nitrates on coronary blood flow – vasodilating coronary arteries (and veins) to such an extent that you dilate all the other arteries thereby reducing blood flow – reduces preload and afterload which reduces the work done by the heart
  38. Angina pectoralis
    chest pain
  39. Myocardial stunning
    heart is reversibly damaged
  40. Cardiac ischemia
    reduced blood flow

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