Inherited characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.
System of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations
The branch of psychology concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
The widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations.
- Establishes first research lab in Leipzig, Germany.
- Establishes first journal devoted to research in Psychology.
Helps launch humanistic movement with publications of client-centered therapy
Psychology's Intellectual Parents
Philosophy and Physiology
Thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that none the less exert great influence on behavior.
-Persuaded the existence of what he called unconscious
- Psychoanalytic Theory
Theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
Careful, Systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience.
The Premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.
Any observable response or activity by an organism
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviors.
Attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
- developed by Freud
The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems.
Theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive values for a species over the course of many generations
A school of psychology based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
Science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
Purposeful, reasoned, goal-directed thinking that involves solving problems, formulating, inferences, working with probabilities, and making carefully thought-out decisions.
Approach to psychology that uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence.
John B. Watson
Writes classic behaviorism manifesto arguing that psychology should study only observable behavior.
B. F. Skinner
Publishes his influential science and human behavior, advocating radical behaviorism similar to watsons.
Shows how conditioned responses are created, paving way for stimulus-response psychology.