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2009-09-29 14:51:16

chapter 1
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  1. Natural Selection
    Inherited characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.
  2. Theory
    System of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations
  3. Clinical Psychology
    The branch of psychology concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
  4. Culture
    The widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations.
  5. Wilhelm Wundt
    • - Establishes first research lab in Leipzig, Germany.
    • - Establishes first journal devoted to research in Psychology.
  6. Carl Rogers
    Helps launch humanistic movement with publications of client-centered therapy
  7. Psychology's Intellectual Parents
    Philosophy and Physiology
  8. Unconscious
    Thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that none the less exert great influence on behavior.
  9. Sigmund Freud
    • -Persuaded the existence of what he called unconscious
    • - Psychoanalytic Theory
    • - unconscious
  10. Humanism
    Theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
  11. Introspection
    Careful, Systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience.
  12. Empiricism
    The Premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
  13. Cognition
    The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
  14. structuralism
    based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.
  15. Behavior
    Any observable response or activity by an organism
  16. Behaviorism
    A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviors.
  17. Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
    • - developed by Freud
  18. Applied Psychology
    The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems.
  19. Evolutionary Psychology
    Theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive values for a species over the course of many generations
  20. Functionalism
    A school of psychology based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
  21. Psychology
    Science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
  22. Critical Thinking
    Purposeful, reasoned, goal-directed thinking that involves solving problems, formulating, inferences, working with probabilities, and making carefully thought-out decisions.
  23. Positive Psychology
    Approach to psychology that uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence.
  24. John B. Watson
    Writes classic behaviorism manifesto arguing that psychology should study only observable behavior.
  25. B. F. Skinner
    Publishes his influential science and human behavior, advocating radical behaviorism similar to watsons.
  26. Ivan Pavlov
    Shows how conditioned responses are created, paving way for stimulus-response psychology.