Recognize why God’s covenant with Israel is modeled after the ANE Suzerain-Vassal treaty.
In the Ancient Near East, a covenant is a means of establishing a relationship, not naturally existing (i.e., by blood), which is given sanctions (binding force; hold power) by an oath sworn in a ceremony of ratification.
The Sinai Covenant follows very closely the literary form and structure of the International Treaty of the Ancient Near East between an overlord, or Suzerain, and his subject people, vassals. The Suzerain-Vassal Treaty was widely known and used during the second millennium B.C.—the most complete and largest number of examples having come to us from the Hittite texts found at Boghaskoy dating to the 14th and 13th centuries.
The Suzerain-Vassal Treaty is not a treaty between equals; but between a lord and a servant. It requires complete loyalty and obedience from the servant who benefits from the provision and protection of the lord.
SUMMARY: By modeling the covenant after a Suzerain-Vassal treaty, God communicated his purpose in a way that Israel could easily understand.