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what 3 things must be present to have a wetland?
- 1) Wetland soils
- 2) wetland vegetation
- 3) wetland hydrology
3 goals related to stream restoration
- 1) Stream sinuosity (snaking) floodplain connectivity- wetland benefits
- 2) aquatic habitat- for amphibians and fish;
- 3) ripple and pool complexes- aquatic habitat and DO addition
How do buffers remove phosphorus?
- Plant uptake
- Settle sediment
Under what conditions will riparian buffers be effective at reducing NO3 loadings to surface waters via denitrification?
under which conditions will they be ineffective?
Water table close to roots
water table much deeper than roots
three mechanisms for nitrogen reduction by controlled drainage
- Reduced water outflow
- Improved crop yield (soil moisture)
Three common agriculture BMPs
- 1) Nutrient management
- 2) Controlled drainage
- 3) Restored wetlands
- 4) Buffers
- 5) Cover crops
Why is sediment in surface waters a problem?
- Clog drainage ways
- Coat fish gills
- Prevent light penetration and photosynthesis by SAV
- Pollutants attached to sediment
Three processes required for water erosion
How is phosphorus typically transported to surface waters, what are some other pathways?
- Soluble P in surface layers
- Leaching due to high P index
Why do well drained soils lose more NO3 than poorly drained soils?
- nitrate leaching
- less dentrification
Nitrate into nitrogen
Make into gas
Ammonia to nitrates
Feshwater systems are typically ______ limited, while salt water systems are typically ____ limited. Why?
Phosphorus is bound to sediment and not avalible until iron disolves in anarobic conditions of estuary and the chemical reaction with sea water rids the sites of Phosphorus
Nitrogen is limited in salt waters because much Nitrogen is weakened or drawn out during transport to estuaries
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