ANP Certification Derm Flash Cards.txt

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ANP Certification Derm Flash Cards.txt
2010-10-26 09:23:13
ANP Certification Derm Flash Cards

ANP Certification Derm Flash Cards
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  1. Where do you find acanthosis nigricans?
    Cutaneous manifestation of hyperinsulinemia. Moist, velvety found neck, axilla, also may have skin tags in same area.
  2. Recluse spider bite lesion?
    Red, white, blue. Core is blue necrotic
  3. Tinea Unguium?
    Onychomycosis, tinea of nail
  4. Tinea capitis?
    Scalp. See alopecia patches
  5. Tinea Manuum?
    Tinea of hands
  6. Tinea Pedis?
    Athletes foot. Moist and stinky or dry and scaly.
  7. Tinea versicolor?
    Pityriasis Versicolor.
  8. Pityriasis alba?
  9. What does KOH slide provide?
    Diagnosis for tinea and other dermatophytes. Will see hyphae and spores.
  10. What is noted in Pityriasis rosea?
    "Herald Patch" may need antihistamines
  11. What does pityriasis mean?
    Pityriasis commonly refers to flaking (or scaling)of the skin.
  12. Acne Rosacea what is it and what can it lead to?
    Chronic facial acne, may lead to rhinophyma of nose with irregular bulbous thickening
  13. What exacerbates Acne Rosacea flares?
    Flushing in response to ETOH, sun, cold, skin products, wind, etc
  14. Tinea Barbae?
    Tinea of Beard
  15. Acne Vulgaris?
    Plain old acne
  16. Acne Conglobata?
    highly inflammatory disease presenting with comedones, nodules, abscesses, and draining sinus tract
  17. Tinea Corporis/ Tinea circinate?
    Ringworm. Ring-like pruritic rash
  18. Tinea Cruris?
    Jock itch. Red, pruritic rash with fine scales
  19. Characteristics of candidal groin infection?
    Bright red rash with satellite lesions
  20. Intertrigo?
    Bright red diffuse rash, indicative of bacterial infection
  21. Anthrax lesion?
    Starts as inflammatory papule, becomes necrotic
  22. How does Silvadene (Silver sulfadiazine) work?
    It is bactericidal. Acts on cell membrane and cell wall.
  23. How does silver nitrate work?
  24. How does one get an Orf skin ulcer?
    Contact with sheep or goats, parapoxvirus transmits across species
  25. How do you diagnose candidiasis?
    KOH stain
  26. What is a Kopick's spot?
    A buccal mucosal lesion that appears before skin rash of measles
  27. How do you identify clubbing?
    See thickening and broadening of ends of fingers. Bulbous appearance with swelling of terminal phalanges.
  28. What degree of change is noted in nailbed/digit angle in clubbing?
    Increase from 160 to 180 degrees
  29. Where do you find a Podagra lesion?
    It is gout of the great toe, from hyperuricemia causing uric acid crystal deposit
  30. What food causes gout exacerbation?
    High purine foods, such as organ meats.
  31. What drugs are contraindicated in gout?
    Salicylates. They block renal excretion of uric acid
  32. What happens if itch continues to occur during the week after lice treatment?
    Most likely due to inflammatory reaction to lice bites causing itch
  33. What is an annular lesion?
    Ring shape lesion
  34. What is acral location?
    Located on an extremity
  35. Rash of scarlet fever?
    Diffuse erythema sandpaper rash texture
  36. Toxic shock syndrome rash?
    Diffuse, sunburn like erythroderma
  37. Meningococcemia rash?
    Nonn confluent, discrete papules, erythematous
  38. What lesions can be pustular?
    Acnes, folliculitis, candidiasis,
  39. What are the characteristics of Lichen Planus?
    "5 P's": well-defined pruritic, planar, purple, polygonal papules. The commonly affected sites are near the wrist and the ankle
  40. What does long term use of topical corticosteroids cause?
    Cutaneous atrophy, telangiectasis, easy bruise-ability
  41. Name for infection of hair follicle that causes abscess and what microorganism causes it?
    Furuncles (boils), Carbuncles. Staph aureus.
  42. How does topical corticosteroids work?
    Decrease inflammation and allergic reaction and cause vasoconstriction.
  43. Potency classes number range of Corticosteroids?
    Class 1 is highest potency. Class 7 is lowest.
  44. Where is Hydrocortisone in the class range for corticosteroid?
    Low potency
  45. Where is triamcinolone in the class range for corticosteroid?
    Low potency
  46. Where is Betamethasone in the class range for corticosteroid?
    High Potency
  47. What drugs can induce acne?
    Lithium, phenytoin
  48. Topical Vitamin A concerns?
    Need to use sunscreen
  49. What drug treats acne Rosacea?
    Metronidazole topically
  50. Oral Accutane side effects?
    Elevated triglycerides, elevated LFTs, depression, suicide, teratogenic
  51. What should Accutane be taken with?
    Highly lipophilic, eat with fatty foods
  52. Restrictions on Accutane RX for women?
    Only one month supply, no refills, be on BCP
  53. What is another name for an open comedone?
    Black head
  54. Closed comedone alternate name?
  55. Treatment for minor acne?
    Benzoyl peroxide
  56. Treatment for moderate acne?
    Oral tetracycline
  57. Treatment for severe cystic acne?
  58. How do you treat a cat bite?
    Can cause Pasteurella multocida infection, give Augmentin x 10 days, culture wound, and don't suture shut
  59. What is the rule of 9s for burns? And what is a good 'ruler'
    To tell percent of BSA of burn. The palm of the hand is 1% BSA
  60. What are BSA burn calculations that are 4.5%
    4.5% is face, or posterior head, or front of arms, or back of arms
  61. What are BSA burn calculations that are 9%
    9% is front of leg or back of leg
  62. What are BSA burn calculations that are 18%
    18% would be entire chest or entire back
  63. What is another name for atopic dermatitis?
    Eczema, at type I hypersensitive RXN
  64. What are examples of immunomodulators?
    Pimecrolimus (Elidel) and Tacrolimus (Protopic)
  65. What is immunomodulators mechanism of action?
    Block T cell stimulation by antigen presenting cells and inhibits mast cell activation.
  66. Side effect of immunomodulators drugs?
  67. What does a positive Tzanck smear show and what is it positive for?
    Giant Multinucleated cells. Herpetic lesions.
  68. Infection of Herpes in what Cranial Nerve can cause blindness?
    Cranial Nerve #5, the ophthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve can cause result in corneal blindness.
  69. What can clue you in to the fact that you have herpes on CN 5?
    Herpetic lesion will be noted on tip of nose
  70. What location of lesions carry highest incidence of post herpetic neuralgia?
    Trigeminal and brachial plexus. Followed by thoracic and then LS areas with lower risks.
  71. Other than location of lesion, what other things cause higher chance of post herpetic neuralgia?
    Severity of lesions, intense prodrome, and age >80
  72. What drugs are indicated on post herpetic neuralgia treatment?
    Pregabalin (Lyrica) TCAs, (amitriptyline), Gabapentin
  73. What is the Zoster Vaccine? And what population is it indicated for?
    Live attenuated varicella zoster virus to protect elderly against Shingles. Indicated in adults >60
  74. What happens at a cellular level with Psoriasis Vulgaris?
    Accelerated mitosis and rapid cell turnover causes decreased skin maturation and keratinization
  75. What is the Goeckerman regimen used for and what does it entail?
    Psoriasis. UV light therapy with coal tar 2 times a day
  76. Where is seborrheic Dermatitis noted?
    Skin areas with high sebaceous glands. Ears, scalp, eyelid margins, nasolabial fold, upper trunk
  77. Treatment for seborrheic dermatitis?
    Low dose topical steroid during flare. Ketoconazole.
  78. Surgical procedure for skin cancer removal?
    Mohs micrographic surgery
  79. How much compression should be on venous stasis ulcer?
    30-40 mmHg
  80. What is urticaria?
    Hive eruptions. Typically in response to allergen. Itchy, and raised.
  81. What combination of symptoms is seen in anaphylaxis?
    Wide spread urticaria, vasodilation, angioedema and bronchospasm
  82. What virus causes verruca vulgaris warts?
    HPV 1, 2, 4
  83. What would you prescribe if you weren't sure if a skin infection was gram positive or gram negative or wanted to cover for both?
    Bactrim plus add a beta lactam, such as a cephalosporin
  84. What can mimic CA MRSA wound?
    The spider bite of the brown recluse spider. It has more of a red, white, and blue. Red being halo. Blue being internal necrotic spot.
  85. What is contained in the Dermis?
    Blood vessels, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles
  86. What is contained in the subcutaneous layer?
    Fat, sweat glands, hair follicles
  87. What happens on the epidermal layer?
    Melanocytes are there, vitamin D synthesis occurs, top layer has keratinized cells
  88. What is a xanthelasma and who might you see this in?
    Deposit of cholesterol under skin of eyelid. Seen in those with hyperlipidemia.
  89. Melasma?
    Mask of pregnancy. Tan cheeks and forehead
  90. Xerosis?
    Inherited skin disorder causing extremely dry skin
  91. Xerostomia?
    Extremely dry mouth
  92. Xerophthalmia?
    Extremely dry conjunctiva
  93. Where would you note the Koebner Phenomenon?
    Skin lesions occurring along traumatic areas, sometimes noted in psoriasis
  94. What is an Auspitz sign?
    If remove psoriatic plaque, will see punctate bleeding
  95. What is Rhus Dermatitis?
    Rash due to position ivy, oak, etc
  96. What is noted in hidradenitis Suppurativa?
    Staph aureus bacterial infection of sebaceous glands of axillae and groin with sinus tracts and scarring
  97. Treatment for Hidradenitis Suppurativa?
    Augmentin or dicloxacillin x 10 days
  98. Another name for Stevens-Johnson's syndrome?
    Erythema Multiform Major
  99. What causes Stevens-Johnson's syndrome?
    Sever hypersensitivity reaction to medications, viral or fungal infection or malignancies
  100. What medications can cause Stevens-Johnson's syndrome?
    Dilantin, PCNs, and Sulfas
  101. What is characteristic lesions of Stevens-Johnson's syndrome?
    Multiple lesions abruptly erupt, hives, blisters, bullae, petechiae, hemorrhagic lesions, with extensive mucosal surface involvement including airway.
  102. What area of skin does dermatophytosis affect?
    Superficial keratinized tissues of skin, nails, and hair
  103. Rule of thumb about pruritic rashes that are worse at night?
    Scabies until proven otherwise
  104. What is a lesion covered in fine silvery scales called?
  105. What is a herald patch and what is it associated with?
    Christmas tree rash noted in Pityriasis Rosacea that then progresses to a diffuse exanthem rash.
  106. What is an Exanthem?
    A wide-spread rash
  107. Another name for seborrheic dermatitis?
  108. Cautions with oral antifungals?
    Assess for hepatotoxicity with LFT checks. Careful of other CYP 450 3A4 enzymes.
  109. What areas of body absorb the highest amount of topical medication?
  110. Crust, Primary or secondary lesion?
    Secondary. Crust forms after a primary lesion has opened and dried