fetal us 1.txt

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tyvachon
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45141
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fetal us 1.txt
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2010-10-26 13:59:24
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radiology resident ultrasound
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radiology resident ultrasound
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  1. FETAL ULTRASOUND 1
    • Oligohydramnios (<5 cm in 3rd Trimester)
    • DRIPP-C
    • Demise (Look for Cardiac Activity)
    • Bilateral Renal Abnormalities (Agenesis, IPCKD, MCDK)
    • IUGR
    • Premature Rupture of Membranes
    • Post Dates
    • Chromosomal Abnormalities
  2. Polyhydramnios (>20 cm in 3rd Trimester)
    • Idiopathic (40-60%)
    • Maternal (Diabetes or HTN)
    • Fetal (Proximal GI Obstruction, Chest Masses, CNS Lesions, Facial Clefts, Facial Tumors, Twin-Twin Transfusion, Non-Immune Hydrops)
  3. Absent Fetal Bladder
    • Bilateral Renal Agenesis
    • Bilateral Multicystic Dysplastic Kidneys
    • Bilateral UPJ Obstruction
    • Infantile Polycystic Kidney Dz
    • Bladder Exstrophy
  4. Dilated Bladder
    • Posterior Urethral Valves
    • Prune Belly Syndrome
  5. In Utero Hydronephrosis
    • (Pelvis >5 mm before 28 weeks, >10 mm after 28 weeks)
    • UPJ Obstruction
    • UVJ Obstruction
    • Vesicoureteral Reflux
    • Posterior Urethral Valves (Bilateral)
    • Renal Duplication
  6. Sacral Abnormalities
    • Teratoma
    • Anterior or Posterior Meningocele
    • Caudal Regression Syndrome (Sacral Agenesis)
  7. �Water� in the Brain
    • Hydrocephalus (See Below)
    • Holoprosencephaly (ALOBAR = Monoventricle; Absent Septum Pellucidum, Corpus Callosum and Falx; Fusion of Brain; Proboscis; *Midline Facial Cleft. Less Severe Forms = SEMILOBAR, and LOBAR)
    • Hydranencephaly (Falx Present, Head Almost Entirely Filled with Fluid)
    • Choroid Plexus Cyst (Associated with Trisomy 18)
    • Porencephaly
    • Vein of Galen Aneurysm
    • POSTERIOR FOSSA:
    • Dandy Walker (Split Cerebellar Vermis)
    • Arachnoid Cyst
    • Mega Cisterna Magna
  8. %of facial clefts leteral?
    * >99% of Facial Clefts are Lateral
  9. Hydrocephalus
    • Chiari II (90%)(Banana/ Lemon Sign, Myelomeningocele)
    • Aqueductal Stenosis (4%)
    • Associated with Dandy Walker (4%)
    • Communicating Hydrocephalus (Hemorrhage, Infection)
    • Colpocephaly associated with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum
  10. Neural Tube Defects
    • Spina Bifida (Occult, Meningocele, Meningomyelocele)
    • Anencephaly
    • Encephalocele
  11. �Water� Outside the Brain/ Neck
    • Encephalocele
    • Cystic Hygroma (Assoc. with Non-Immune Hydrops and ChromosomalAbnormalities such as Turner�s, Noonan�s, Down�s and Trisomy 18)
    • Teratoma
    • Hemangioma
    • Thyroglossal Duct and Branchial Cleft Cysts
  12. PREMATURE INFANT Grades of Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage
    • < 32 Weeks, < 1500 Grams
    • 1. Subependymal Hemorrhage
    • 2. Intraventricular Hemorrhage without Ventricular Dilatation
    • 3. Intraventricular Hemorrhage with Ventricular Dilatation
    • 4. Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
  13. Sonography of the Fetal Abdomen (4 Q�s)
    • 1. IS THE ABDOMINAL SITUS CORRECT
    • 2. IS A FLUID FILLED STOMACH PRESENT
    • 3. ARE THERE ANY CYSTC OR SOLID ABDOMINAL MASSES
    • 4. IS THE ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL INTACT
  14. Absent Stomach Bubble
    • Oligohydramnios
    • Swallowing Abnormality (CNS Defect)
    • Esophageal Atresia
    • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
    • Situs Abnormality
  15. Cystic Abdominal Masses
    • Bowel Obstruction (Duodenal Atresia, Annular Pancreas, Volvulus)
    • Renal Abnormalities (Hydronephrosis, MCDC)
    • Cysts (Mesenteric, Urachal, Duplication, Ovarian, Choledochal)
    • Liver Masses (Hemangioma, Hemangioendothelioma)
  16. Calcification in the Abdomen (Echogenic)
    • Meconium Peritonitis
    • Calcified Mass (Neuroblastoma, Teratoma, TORCH Infection in Liver)

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