Chemistry ch 5

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Chemistry ch 5
2010-10-27 21:03:37
Chemistry borcherding electrons

chapter 5
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  1. Properties are determined by
  2. That particles of matter have the same properties of waves & vice versa
  3. deBroglie's equation
    • E=mc2 (einstein) E=hv (Planck) c=yv / v=c/y
    • hv=mc2, so hc/y=mc2, so y=hc/mc2, c's cancel and y=h/mc
  4. Wave-particle duality
    A stream of electrons acts the same as waves of light
  5. How was wave-particle duality proved
    mathematically by deBroglie's equations
  6. C=3x10^8 in a VACUUM. But, how does it travel elsewhere?
    It travels at different speeds and changes directions (refracts)
  7. Index of refraction
    • specific to a substance
    • Calculated by the bending of a light ray passing from a vacuum into a new substance.
  8. Momentum
    • P
    • mass x velocity
    • Tells where an object is going
    • Since y = h/mv, y = h/p
  9. As the momentum of an object increases,
    y decreases
  10. As the momentum of an object decreases,
    y increases.
  11. To see an object,
    It must be hit by a photon of light & reflected to our eyes.
  12. Uncertainty Principle
    you can't ever know the exact position and momentum of a moving object at any given instant.
  13. You can't ever see the exact position of an electron because
    The photon is deflected, but the electron is so small that it causes the electron to move.
  14. Uncertainty Principle by
  15. Who treated the electron as a particle?
  16. Theory of Quantum Mechanics
    • Schrodinger
    • Studies the behavior of very small objects travelling at velocities at or near the speed of light
  17. Newtonian Mechanics
    • Newton
    • studies the behavior of VISIBLE objects travelling at ORDINARY velocities.
  18. Who proved the planetary theory wrong?
  19. Orbitals
    3-dimensional regions around the nucleus that give the probable location of the electron
  20. Quantum Numbers tell us
    • The most likely position of the electron in an electron cloud
    • Specific properties of the orbitals
    • Properties of the electrons in the orbitals
  21. Primary Quantum Number
    • n
    • MAIN ENERGY LEVEL occupied by the electron
    • values from 1-7, 1 is the smallest and closest to the nucleus
    • as n increases, the energy of the electron it contains increases, as doesthe distance from the nucleus.
    • 2xn^2 = maximum number of electrons an energy level can hold.
  22. Second Quantum Number
    • cursive l/ribbon
    • SUBLEVEL and SHAPE of the orbital

    • Number of sublevels in an energy level = n
    • Except in n=1, sublevels of different shapes exist in the same energy level
  23. Third Quantum Number (m)
    ORBITALS and SPATIAL ORIENTATION of the orbitals in a sublevel
  24. n^2
    number of orbitals in an atom
  25. Orbitals in s
  26. Orbitals in p
  27. Orbitals in d
  28. Orbitals in f
  29. Sublevels
    s p d f
  30. cursive l=0
  31. cursive l=1
  32. cursive l=2
  33. cursive l=3
  34. Electron configurations are in what state?
  35. Outermost energy level
    atoms with full s and p levels (8e)
  36. Octet
    8e. Very stable.
  37. Rules for filling energy levels with electrons
    • 1. Aufbau Principle
    • 2. Pauli Exclusion Principle
    • 3. Hund's Rule
    • 4. Diagonal Rule
  38. Aufbau Principle
    electrons occupy the lowest energy orbital that can recieve it.
  39. Pauli Exclusion Principle
    No 2 electrons in the same atom can have exactly the same 4 quantum numbers.
  40. Hund's Rule
    Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by 1 electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron.
  41. All electrons in singly-occupied orbitals must have the (spin)
    same spin
  42. Diagonal Rule
    • After 18 electrons have been assigned to the orbitals, the normal filling under rule one doesn't apply.
  43. Notations to show how electrons are arranged
    • Electron configuration notation
    • Orbital notation
    • Electron dot diagram
    • Noble gas notation
  44. Electron configuration notation
    • levels with exponent
    • 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6, etc.
  45. Orbital notation
    Levels with arrows
  46. Electron dot diagram
    • Write the symbol for the element
    • Identify elements in the HIGHEST ENERGY LEVEL
    • Doesn't matter which order the dots are in
  47. Noble gas notation
    • Write the symbol for the noble gas which PRECEDES the element in brackets & then list the additional electrons the element contains after.
    • [AR]4s^2 3d^10 4p^4