The Protozoans 5.3

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The Protozoans 5.3
2010-10-26 19:29:07
Parasitology Protozoans NSHS MLT

Parasitology unit 5.3 The Protozoans
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  1. Eukaryotic, single celled animals, usually microscopic, such as amoebas, ciliates, flagellates, and sporozoans.
  2. An organism with membrane bound nucleus.
  3. The asexual form of certain protozoa, motile, vegetative.
  4. A capsule like sac containing certain protozoa at their dormant or larval stage.
  5. Genetic material inside the cell.
    Chromatin/Chromatoidal bodies
  6. Producing a toxic effect on certain cells.
  7. An aggregation of chromatin in the nucleus.
  8. A cell that engulfs and absorbs other cells or foreign materials in the blood stream or tissues.
  9. occurrence of two or more structural forms of a specific organism during a life cycle.
  10. characterized by a symbiotic relationship wherein a parasite benefits from a host but does not cause it any harm.
  11. What are the two classes under the phylum sarcomastigophora.
    • amoeba
    • mastigophora
  12. What is the class under the phylum of ciliophora?
  13. This class of animals consists of a single cell, which lacks a thick cell membrane. motility and food procurement by pseudopodia.
    Amoeba (sarcodina)
  14. This organism is used as a basis for others. other life cycles can be undserstood by merely referring to the similarities and difference of this organism.
    E. histolytica
  15. how is E. histolytica contracted?
    contaminated food and drink
  16. Trophozoites of E. histolytica migrate to the large intestine, multiply by binary fission, and enter blood stream to invade what three organs?
    • liver
    • brain
    • lungs
  17. This causes amoebic dysentery.
  18. these are remnanys of eosinophil destruction due to the organisms ability to destroy WBC's by the use of cytotoxins.
    Charcot-Leyden crystals
  19. This enzyme erodes the intestinal wall and allows E. histolytica to gain entrance into the blood stream and other organs.
    Proteolytic lysosomal enzymes
  20. This type of E. histolytica ramins confined to the intestinal lume, asymptomatic, may still pass the cysts in stool.
  21. This organism's nucleus is identified by delicate, even, peripheral chromatin garnules along the periphery of the nuclear membrane with a small centrally located karyosome.
    E. histolytica
  22. inclusions in the trophozoites of E. histolytica will have what inclusions if any? (diagnostic)
  23. pseudopodia of E. histolytica are only visible with what type of examination?
    direct mount
  24. in cysts of what organism are Glycogen vacuoles present, especially when young. There are also 1-4 nuclei (1-3 immature/ mature 4)
    E. histolytica
  25. Cysts of this organism are slightly squared with rounded ends, cigar shape (diagnostic).
    E histolytica
  26. This organism is similar to E. histolytica except it does not invade the intestinal mucosa.
    Entamoeba coli
  27. Entamoeba coli is a __________ intestinal parasite of man.
  28. the nucleus of this organism is large with irregularly place chromatin granules along the periphery of the nuclear membrane.
    E. coli
  29. This trophozoite has a coarse cytoplasm with vacuoles (dirty) and inculsions are yeast and bacteria; does not ingest RBC's.
    E. coli
  30. Cysts of this organism have 3 successive nuclear divisions, and produces 8 nuclei in mature cysts. round shape with refractile shell.
    E. coli
  31. This organism is associated with chromatoidal bar inclusions with blunt, broken, or splintered ends, about 10% or less.
    E. coli
  32. This organism is similar to E. histolytica except found in spinal fluid.
    Naegleria fowleri
  33. pathogenicity of this organism is associated with primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) and may become fulminating and fatal.
    Naegleria fowleri
  34. What is the appearance of spinal fluid samples with N. fowleri?
    • Cloudy to purulent
    • few to 20,000 WBC's
    • primary neutrophils
    • may or may not contain RBC's
  35. This is a free living amoeba that requires no intermediate host, inhabits fresh water ponds and lakes, and has a flagellate stage.
    N. fowleri
  36. This has a life cycle similar to that of E. histolytica, but found in the bloodstream.
    Acanthamoeba spp.
  37. Pathogenicity in this organism is associated with granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), Serious eye infections, and corneal trauma, contaminated water or contact lenses.
    Acanthamoeba spp.
  38. What is the name of serious eye infections caused by acanthamoeba spp.
    acanthamoeba keratitis
  39. Lab diagnosis of Acanthamoeba spp. is made by identifying trophozoites and/or cysts in what two places?
    • CSF: trophozoites
    • Brain tissue: trophozoites and cysts
  40. ID of Acanthamoeba spp. is done using what technique?
    indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique
  41. How is acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed?
    • identifying amebae cultured from corneal scrapings
    • histologic examination of infected corneal tissue
  42. In Cryptosporidium spp. __________ are excreted in feces of infected host (diagnostic).
    sporulated cysts
  43. In Cryptosporidium, After sporulated oocysts are excreted, excystation occurs; ___________ escape the oocyst and invade epithelial cells.
  44. Asexual multiplication (merogony) of Cryptosporidium spp. occurs in sporozoite form and produces what?
  45. Some merozoites of Cryptosporidium produce sexual stages called what?
  46. In cryptosporidium fertilization of ___________ results in development of oocysts (each contains 4 sprozoites capable of initiating new infection.
  47. Cryptosporidium spp usually affects what type of people?
    immunocompromised patients
  48. This is a common cause of diarrhea in travelers and day care centers, and can occur as water-borne outbreak, other manifestations include N/V, abdominal cramps, and fever.
    Cryptosporidium spp.
  49. What is the staining technique used to ID Cryptosporidium spp. due to size and appearance of oocysts (resemble yeast).
    Cryptosporidium spp.
  50. in what two ways is isospora spp contracted?
    • direct fecal oral (hand to mouth)
    • infected food or water
  51. life cycle of Isospora spp. is based on studies of what?
    biopsy material
  52. Isospora spp. should be identified in stool or __________ contents.
  53. These are elongated or ovoid, cysts with unsegmented granular cytoplasm with a sooth colorless two layered wall. develop into sporoblasts, then into sporocysts, contains 4 elongated nucleated sporpzoites.
    Isospora spp.
  54. What is the name of the condition when Isospora spp. inhabit the intestinal mucosa causing chronic diarrhea with loose, pale yellow, foul-smelling stools.
  55. This is a small race of E. histolytica that is non-pathogenic and must be differentiated by molecular biology assay.
    Entamoeba dispair
  56. This Non-medically important amoeba has characteristic karyosome resembling large clump of coal, cytoplasm usually contain large glycogen mass.
    Iodamoeba butschlii
  57. Unlike other amoebas, the karyosome of this organism is divided into 4 micro nuclei?
    Endolimax nana
  58. This class of organism motility is by long filamentous, thread-like processes of the ectoplasm called flagella.
    Mastigophora (flagellates)
  59. In what areas are the two major groups of medically important Mastigophora found?
    • digestive tract and urinary tract
    • blood stream and tissues
  60. This is the most common flagellate of humans.
    Giardia lamblia
  61. This organism has the same life cycle as E. histolytica, except reproduction is by longitudinal binary fission.
    Giardia lamblia
  62. This organism is contaminated by sewage, flies, or food handlers, hand to mouth, and sexual intercourse.
    Giardia lamblia
  63. This organism is common in children, and causes severe diarrhea, large number of cysts passed in stools.
    Giardia lamblia
  64. diagnosis of this organism is made by finding cysts in formed stools and trophozoites/cysts in fluid stools, duodenal aspirates or enterotest.
    Giardia lamblia
  65. Trophozoite of this organism is pear shaped in anterior-posterior view and spoon shaped in lateral view, motility is very distinctive, rapid, twisting, jerky, tumblin, or falling leaf motion.
    Giardia lamblia
  66. Trophozoite of this organism has four pairs of flagella, two run through the length of the axostyle at the center and then emerge as free flagella at posterior end, parabasal bodies are two curved rods lying across the axostyle.
    Giardia lamblia
  67. how many nuclei are present in trophozoite of Giardia lamblia?
  68. what is the shape of cysts of Gardia lamblia?
  69. This organism has a life cycle similar to E. histolytica except they do not encyst.
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  70. T. vaginalis is associated with disease of the _________ system.
  71. T. vaginalis is transferred during ________ contact.
  72. trophozoites of this organism is pear shaped with 3-5 anteriorly directed flagella, and 1 posteriorly directed flagella.
    T. vaginalis
  73. This is a thin, clear transparent fin-like organelle that runs almost the entire length of the body with ripples along the outer margin of T. vaginalis.
    undulating membrane
  74. Motility of this organism is rapid, with quick, jerky, forward directional movement, no cyst stage is known.
    T. vaginalis
  75. This commensal parasite does not invade the intestinal mucosa or encyst in humans, contracted through direct transmission, probably by ingestion of trophozoite, may cause diarrhea/abdominal discomfort.
    Dientamoeba fragilis
  76. Dientamoeba fragilis, nucleus has karyosome made up of 4-6 granules in a circular pattern, flagella may be seen with ___________ microscope.
  77. What percent of Dientamoeba fragilis contain two nuclei in the trophozoite phase?
  78. this flagellate has a non-progressive sluggish motility and bacterial inclusions.
    Dientamoeba fragilis
  79. This class of organisms has motility by means of cilia (cytoplasmic hair-like projections) throughout the trophozoite stage.
    Ciliata (ciliates)
  80. This is the largest protozoa to parasitize man.
    Balantidium coli
  81. Balantidium coli reproduces by ___________ binary fission.
  82. Balantidium coli causes ___________ usually associated with diarrhea and ulceration of the intestine.
  83. Balantidium coli is a _______ invader normally found in pigs and monkeys, it is the only pathogenic ciliate.
  84. on the trophozoite of Balantidium coli there is a deep, slightly curved, inverted, conical depression on one side of the longitudinal axis called a ____________ for food procurement.
  85. the posterior end of Balantidium coli has a small opening in the cell membrane called a ____________ for waste discharge.
  86. What are the two distinct objects within the cytoplasm of Balantidium coli?
    • Macronucleus
    • micronucleus
  87. in Balantidium coli this looks like a narrow bean and densely packed with chromatin granules which stain as a single mass, often visible in unstained preparations.
  88. In Balantidium coli, this is located in the center of the inner curvature of the macronucleus, it is a rounded mass which takes a very deep stain and is believed to function in the reproductive cycle, difficult to discern even in stained organism.
  89. What is the size of Balantidium coli?
  90. what is the shape of Balantidium coli?
    spherical to oval