Eukaryotic, single celled animals, usually microscopic, such as amoebas, ciliates, flagellates, and sporozoans.
An organism with membrane bound nucleus.
The asexual form of certain protozoa, motile, vegetative.
A capsule like sac containing certain protozoa at their dormant or larval stage.
Genetic material inside the cell.
Producing a toxic effect on certain cells.
An aggregation of chromatin in the nucleus.
A cell that engulfs and absorbs other cells or foreign materials in the blood stream or tissues.
occurrence of two or more structural forms of a specific organism during a life cycle.
characterized by a symbiotic relationship wherein a parasite benefits from a host but does not cause it any harm.
What are the two classes under the phylum sarcomastigophora.
What is the class under the phylum of ciliophora?
This class of animals consists of a single cell, which lacks a thick cell membrane. motility and food procurement by pseudopodia.
This organism is used as a basis for others. other life cycles can be undserstood by merely referring to the similarities and difference of this organism.
how is E. histolytica contracted?
contaminated food and drink
Trophozoites of E. histolytica migrate to the large intestine, multiply by binary fission, and enter blood stream to invade what three organs?
This causes amoebic dysentery.
these are remnanys of eosinophil destruction due to the organisms ability to destroy WBC's by the use of cytotoxins.
This enzyme erodes the intestinal wall and allows E. histolytica to gain entrance into the blood stream and other organs.
Proteolytic lysosomal enzymes
This type of E. histolytica ramins confined to the intestinal lume, asymptomatic, may still pass the cysts in stool.
This organism's nucleus is identified by delicate, even, peripheral chromatin garnules along the periphery of the nuclear membrane with a small centrally located karyosome.
inclusions in the trophozoites of E. histolytica will have what inclusions if any? (diagnostic)
pseudopodia of E. histolytica are only visible with what type of examination?
in cysts of what organism are Glycogen vacuoles present, especially when young. There are also 1-4 nuclei (1-3 immature/ mature 4)
Cysts of this organism are slightly squared with rounded ends, cigar shape (diagnostic).
This organism is similar to E. histolytica except it does not invade the intestinal mucosa.
Entamoeba coli is a __________ intestinal parasite of man.
the nucleus of this organism is large with irregularly place chromatin granules along the periphery of the nuclear membrane.
This trophozoite has a coarse cytoplasm with vacuoles (dirty) and inculsions are yeast and bacteria; does not ingest RBC's.
Cysts of this organism have 3 successive nuclear divisions, and produces 8 nuclei in mature cysts. round shape with refractile shell.
This organism is associated with chromatoidal bar inclusions with blunt, broken, or splintered ends, about 10% or less.
This organism is similar to E. histolytica except found in spinal fluid.
pathogenicity of this organism is associated with primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) and may become fulminating and fatal.
What is the appearance of spinal fluid samples with N. fowleri?
Cloudy to purulent
few to 20,000 WBC's
may or may not contain RBC's
This is a free living amoeba that requires no intermediate host, inhabits fresh water ponds and lakes, and has a flagellate stage.
This has a life cycle similar to that of E. histolytica, but found in the bloodstream.
Pathogenicity in this organism is associated with granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), Serious eye infections, and corneal trauma, contaminated water or contact lenses.
What is the name of serious eye infections caused by acanthamoeba spp.
Lab diagnosis of Acanthamoeba spp. is made by identifying trophozoites and/or cysts in what two places?
Brain tissue: trophozoites and cysts
ID of Acanthamoeba spp. is done using what technique?
indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique
How is acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed?
identifying amebae cultured from corneal scrapings
histologic examination of infected corneal tissue
In Cryptosporidium spp. __________ are excreted in feces of infected host (diagnostic).
In Cryptosporidium, After sporulated oocysts are excreted, excystation occurs; ___________ escape the oocyst and invade epithelial cells.
Asexual multiplication (merogony) of Cryptosporidium spp. occurs in sporozoite form and produces what?
Some merozoites of Cryptosporidium produce sexual stages called what?
In cryptosporidium fertilization of ___________ results in development of oocysts (each contains 4 sprozoites capable of initiating new infection.
Cryptosporidium spp usually affects what type of people?
This is a common cause of diarrhea in travelers and day care centers, and can occur as water-borne outbreak, other manifestations include N/V, abdominal cramps, and fever.
What is the staining technique used to ID Cryptosporidium spp. due to size and appearance of oocysts (resemble yeast).
in what two ways is isospora spp contracted?
direct fecal oral (hand to mouth)
infected food or water
life cycle of Isospora spp. is based on studies of what?
Isospora spp. should be identified in stool or __________ contents.
These are elongated or ovoid, cysts with unsegmented granular cytoplasm with a sooth colorless two layered wall. develop into sporoblasts, then into sporocysts, contains 4 elongated nucleated sporpzoites.
What is the name of the condition when Isospora spp. inhabit the intestinal mucosa causing chronic diarrhea with loose, pale yellow, foul-smelling stools.
This is a small race of E. histolytica that is non-pathogenic and must be differentiated by molecular biology assay.
This Non-medically important amoeba has characteristic karyosome resembling large clump of coal, cytoplasm usually contain large glycogen mass.
Unlike other amoebas, the karyosome of this organism is divided into 4 micro nuclei?
This class of organism motility is by long filamentous, thread-like processes of the ectoplasm called flagella.
In what areas are the two major groups of medically important Mastigophora found?
digestive tract and urinary tract
blood stream and tissues
This is the most common flagellate of humans.
This organism has the same life cycle as E. histolytica, except reproduction is by longitudinal binary fission.
This organism is contaminated by sewage, flies, or food handlers, hand to mouth, and sexual intercourse.
This organism is common in children, and causes severe diarrhea, large number of cysts passed in stools.
diagnosis of this organism is made by finding cysts in formed stools and trophozoites/cysts in fluid stools, duodenal aspirates or enterotest.
Trophozoite of this organism is pear shaped in anterior-posterior view and spoon shaped in lateral view, motility is very distinctive, rapid, twisting, jerky, tumblin, or falling leaf motion.
Trophozoite of this organism has four pairs of flagella, two run through the length of the axostyle at the center and then emerge as free flagella at posterior end, parabasal bodies are two curved rods lying across the axostyle.
how many nuclei are present in trophozoite of Giardia lamblia?
what is the shape of cysts of Gardia lamblia?
This organism has a life cycle similar to E. histolytica except they do not encyst.
T. vaginalis is associated with disease of the _________ system.
T. vaginalis is transferred during ________ contact.
trophozoites of this organism is pear shaped with 3-5 anteriorly directed flagella, and 1 posteriorly directed flagella.
This is a thin, clear transparent fin-like organelle that runs almost the entire length of the body with ripples along the outer margin of T. vaginalis.
Motility of this organism is rapid, with quick, jerky, forward directional movement, no cyst stage is known.
This commensal parasite does not invade the intestinal mucosa or encyst in humans, contracted through direct transmission, probably by ingestion of trophozoite, may cause diarrhea/abdominal discomfort.
Dientamoeba fragilis, nucleus has karyosome made up of 4-6 granules in a circular pattern, flagella may be seen with ___________ microscope.
What percent of Dientamoeba fragilis contain two nuclei in the trophozoite phase?
this flagellate has a non-progressive sluggish motility and bacterial inclusions.
This class of organisms has motility by means of cilia (cytoplasmic hair-like projections) throughout the trophozoite stage.
This is the largest protozoa to parasitize man.
Balantidium coli reproduces by ___________ binary fission.
Balantidium coli causes ___________ usually associated with diarrhea and ulceration of the intestine.
Balantidium coli is a _______ invader normally found in pigs and monkeys, it is the only pathogenic ciliate.
on the trophozoite of Balantidium coli there is a deep, slightly curved, inverted, conical depression on one side of the longitudinal axis called a ____________ for food procurement.
the posterior end of Balantidium coli has a small opening in the cell membrane called a ____________ for waste discharge.
What are the two distinct objects within the cytoplasm of Balantidium coli?
in Balantidium coli this looks like a narrow bean and densely packed with chromatin granules which stain as a single mass, often visible in unstained preparations.
In Balantidium coli, this is located in the center of the inner curvature of the macronucleus, it is a rounded mass which takes a very deep stain and is believed to function in the reproductive cycle, difficult to discern even in stained organism.