Urinary System 2

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mommy2pj
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45175
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Urinary System 2
Updated:
2010-10-26 16:12:25
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urinary system urine filtration
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Urinary System Anatomy and function
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  1. What substance is normally completely reabsorbed by tubules of nephron?
    glucose
  2. function of renal pelvis
    collect urine from calyces and pass it to ureters
  3. what are the conical structures located in renal medulla?
    renal pyramids
  4. what is kidney's response to an increase in Aldosterone?
    urine will have a lower specific gravity
  5. what things are done during urine formation?
    • a plasma like filtrate of blood is created
    • useful solutes removed from filtrate and returned to blood
    • additional waste removal from blood and added to filtrate
    • waste is concentrated
  6. where is detrusor muscle located?
    inner wall of bladder
  7. what are renal columns?
    bundle of tissue lying between renal pyramids and extend from renal cortex toward renal sinus
  8. what epithelial cells line ureters and urinary bladder
    transitional epithelium
  9. detrusor muscle
  10. detrusor muscle
  11. distal convoluted tubule
  12. distal convoluted tubule
  13. distal convoluted tubule
  14. where is greatest concentration of solutes in tubular fluid?
    hairpin turn of loop of Henle
  15. under normal conditions, the renal clearance of large protien such as albumin is closest to what value?
    0
  16. what is renal pelvis?
    expanded end of ureter
  17. the expanded end of ureter forms what structure?
    renal pelvis
  18. efferent artery
  19. efferent arteriole
  20. efferent arteriole
  21. external urethral opening
  22. external urethral opening
  23. external urethral orifice
  24. external urethral sphincter
  25. filtration membrane
  26. Bowman's capsule


  27. 1. what is the structure?
    2. what is the layer called up against it?
    • 1. glomurulus
    • 2. visceral layer
  28. glomerulus
  29. glomerulus
  30. when water is reabsorbed in proximal convoluted tubule by obligatory reabsorption, what does that mean?
    water is following sodium and other ions or molecules to maintain osmotic balance
  31. how does detrusor muscle help with urination?
    compresses urinary bladder and expels urine through urethra
  32. what organ was the first successful transplant?
    kidney
  33. what are major calyces?
    large branches of renal pelvis
  34. what structure embeds the kidney and acts like a cushion?
    adipose capsule
  35. what happens to parasympathetic motor neurons during micturition reflex?
    increased activity of parasympathetic motor neurons that control smooth muscle of bladder
  36. What anatomical structure is damaged when one has a floating kidney?
    renal fascia (this holds kidney in place)
  37. what is a floating kidney?
    what structure is damaged if this happens ?
    • floating kidney is when kidney is out of normal position.
    • renal fascia is damaged if this happens
  38. interlobar artery
  39. inerlobar artery
  40. interlobar vein
  41. interlobular artery
  42. interlobular artery
  43. interlobular artery
  44. interlobular artery
  45. interlobular vein
  46. interlobular vein
  47. what makes up the renal corpuscle?
    • bowman's capsule
    • glomerulus
  48. function of urinary system?
    • regulate blood volume and BP
    • regulate plasma concentration of ions
    • help stabilize blood pH
    • conserve valuable nutrients
  49. where does blood filtration occur?
    glomular capillaries
  50. macula densa is part of what structure?
    distal convoluted tubule
  51. which blood vessel supplies nutrients to renal medulla?
    vasa recta
  52. cells of macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells form what structure?
    juxtaglomerular apparatus
  53. why is floating kidney dangerous?
    ureters or renal blood vessels become twisted or kinked during movement
  54. tubular reabsorption ?
    flow of fluid and solutes from tubular fluid into blood
  55. why is the high pressure within bowman's capsule created when glomerulus forces plasma and solutes out of capillaries into capsule?
    diameter of efferent arterioles smaller then diameter of afferent arterioles
  56. what is the expanded end of nephron called ?
    renal corpuscle
  57. what is responsible for delivering urine to minor calyx?
    papillary duct
  58. what nephrons control urine concentration?
    juxtamedullary nephrons
  59. juxtamedullary nephron
  60. right kidney
  61. left kidney
  62. left renal artery
  63. left ureter
  64. left ureter
  65. left ureter
  66. what happens if glomerular filtration rate is too high?
    useful substances may be lost
  67. what is glomerulus?
    knot of capillaries that lie within renal corpuscle
  68. function of renal corpuscle?
    filtration of plasma
  69. what does ANP (Atrial natriuretic peptide) do ?
    increases glomerular filtration rate
  70. what is responsible for concentration of urine?
    collecting duct of loop of Henle
  71. what is the portion of nephron closest to renal corpuscle?
    proximal convoluted tubule
  72. function of kidney
    • remove waste product from blood
    • assist in regulation of blood volume
    • assist in regulation of blood pH
    • assist in regulation of BP
    • assist in regulation of blood ion levels
  73. juxtaglomerular appartatus functions to do what?
    • renin formation
    • erythropoietin formation
    • endocrine function
  74. juxtaglomerular apparatus is located where?
    between ascending loop of Henle and afferent arteriole
  75. portion of nephron that attaches to collecting duct?
    distal convoluted tubule
  76. 1) inflammatory disorder of glomeruli ?
    2) what does it affect?
    • 1) glomerulonephritis
    • 2) affects filtration mechanism of kidney
  77. what does cortical nephron function as?
    filters blood
  78. lumen of tubules
  79. major calyx
  80. major calyx
  81. major calyx
  82. major calyx
  83. major calyx
  84. membranous urethra
  85. minor calyx
  86. when does tubular reabsorption occur?
    when water and useful substances reabsorb in blood
  87. what is the horseshoe shaped segment of nephron?
    loop of Henle
  88. 1) What is angiotensin 2?
    2) what are affects of angiotensin 2 ?
    • 1) active hormone-like peptide
    • 2) affects nephrons, CNS, adrenal glands, peripheral capillary beds
  89. what regulates glomerular filtration?
    • autoregulation
    • sympathetic neural control
    • angiotensin 2
    • hormone ADH

  90. 1) what is number 2?
    2) what is number 3?
    • 1) renal cortex
    • 2) renal medulla

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