Psy2012 Test 3

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Psy2012 Test 3
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  1. In doing such a thing, you take advantage of your own ability to use mental ________--that is, to represent or picture a sensory experience.
    imagery
  2. A ________ is a mental category used to represent a class or group of objects, people, organizations, events, situations, or relations that share common charcteristics or attributes.
    concept
  3. A ________ is one that is clearly defined by a set of rules, aformal definition, or a classification system.
    formal concept
  4. Most of the concepts we form and use are ________, acquired not from definitions but through everyday perceptions and experiences.
    natural concepts
  5. One view suggests that, in using natural concepts, we are likely to picture a _______ of the concept--an example that embodies its most common and typical features.
    prototype
  6. A more recent theory of concept formation suggests that concepts are represented by their ________--individual instances, or examples, of a concept that are stored in memory from personal experience.
    exemplars
  7. The process of decision making shares many features with ________, the thoughts and actions required to achieve a disired goal.
    problem solving
  8. The ________ involves comparing a problem to others you have encountered in the past.
    analogy heuristic
  9. Another heuristic that is effective for solving some problems is _______. sometimes called the backward search.
    working backwards
  10. Another popular heuristic strategy is ________, in which the current position is compared with a desired goal, and a series of steps are formulated and then taken to close the gap between the two.
    means-end analysis
  11. By contrast, an ________ is a problem-solving strategy that always leads to a correct solution if it is applied appropriately.
    algorithm
  12. In some cases, we are hampered in our efforts to solve problems in daily life because of ________--the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems.
    functional fixedness
  13. ________ is a mental rut in one's approach to solving problems, the tendency to continue to use the same old method even though another approach might be better.
    Mental set
  14. The cognitive process that underlies both functional fiedness and mental set is ________, the tendency to selectively pay attention to information that confirms preexisting beliefs and ignore data that contradict them.
    confirmation bias
  15. This particular feature of computer "thinking" has been well illustraed by ________ programs that have been designed to match the skills of human experts in games such as chess.
    artificial intelligence
  16. Programs designed to mimic human brain functioning are called ________.
    artifical nerual networks.
  17. Such networks have proved very useful in computer programs designed to carry out highly specific funtions within a limited domain, known as _______.
    expert systems
  18. ________ is the study of how language is acquired, produced, and used and how the sounds and symbols of language are translated into meaning.
    Psycholinguistics
  19. The smallest units of sound in a spoken language--such as b or s in English--are known as ________.
    phonemes
  20. ________ are the smallest units of meaning in a language.
    Morphemes
  21. ________ is the aspect of grammer that specifies the rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases and sentences.
    Syntax
  22. _______ refers to the meaning derived from morphemes, words, and sentences.
    Semantics
  23. Finally, ________ is the term psycholinguists use to refer to aspects of language such as intonation, the rising and falling patterns that are used to express meaning.
    pragmatics
  24. Benjamin Whorf put forth his ________, suggesting that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that person's thoughts.
    linguistic relativity hypothesis
  25. One of the pluses is that, among preschool and school-age children, ________ is associated with better metalinguistic skills, the capacity to think about language.
    bilingualism
  26. When you were in school, you probably took an ________ every year or two. These tests tap knowledge and skills that a person has acquired through experiences such as formal education up to the point at which the test is taken.
    achievement test
  27. ________ are norm-referenced tests that are designed to predict a person's probable achievement or performance in a particular setting or in reference to a specific task at some future time.
    Aptitude tests
  28. An _______ is a measure of general intellectual ability.
    intelligence test
  29. Alfred Binet with the help of his colleague, psychiatrist Theodore Simon, developed a variety of tests that eventually became his first intelligence test, the ________, first published in 1905.
    Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale
  30. In 1912, he devised a simple formula for calculating an inde of intelgence--________.
    the intelligence quotient
  31. Terman also established new _______, or age-based averages, based on the scores of large numbers of children.
    norms
  32. Within 3 years, 4 million American children had taken Terman's revision, known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. It was the first test to make use of Stern's concept of the ________.
    intelligence quotient.
  33. ________ can be thought of as the ability to produce original, appropriate, and valuable ideas and/or solutions to problems.
    Creativity
  34. ________ is the ability to produce multiple ideas, answers, or solutions to a problem for which there is no agreed-on solution.
    Divergent thinking
  35. Guilford defined ________ as the type of mental activity measured by IQ and achievement tests; it consists of solving precisely define, logical problems for which there is a known correct answer.
    convergent thinking
  36. At Kohlberg's first level of moral development, the ________,moral reasoning is governed by the standards of others and judges right and wrong in terms of those standards.
    preconventional level
  37. At Kohlberg's second level of moral development, the ________, the individual has internalized the standards of others and judges right and wrong in terms of those standards.
  38. Kohlberg's highest level of moral development is the ________, which requires th eability to think at Piaget's stage of formal operations.
    postconventional level
  39. According to Erkison, individuals progress through eight ________, each of which is defined by a conflict involving the individual's relationship with the social environment, which must be resolved satisfactorily for healthy development to occur.
    psychosocial stages
  40. Gibson and Walk designed an apparatus called the ________, which is " a board laid across a sheet of heavy glass, with patterned material directly beneath the glass on one side and several feet below it on the other".
    visual cliff
  41. ________ occurs natuarally according to the infant's own genetically determined biological timetable of development.
    Maturation
  42. Almost all infants form a strong _______ to their mothers or primary caregivers.
    attachment
  43. Harlow found that it was ________--the comfort supplied by bodily contact--rather than nourishment that formed the basis of the infant monkey's attachment to its mother.
    contact comfort
  44. Once the attachment has formed, infants show ________--fear and distress when the parent leaves them.
    Seperation anxiety
  45. At about 6 or 7 months of age, infants develop a fear of strangers called ________.
    stranger anxiety
  46. The first pattern is ________. (observed in about 65% of American infants). Although usually distressed when seperated from their mother, ________ infants seek to reestablish the connection and then show an interst in play.
    secure attachment
  47. Infants with a pattern called ________ )approximately 20% of American infants) are usually not responsive to theri mother when she is present and not troubled when she leaves.
    avoidant attachment
  48. Prior to a period of separation, infants who show resistant attachment (10% to 15% of American infants) seek and prefer close contact with their mother.
    resistant attachment
  49. The pattern of ________ attachment (seen in 5 to 10% of American infants) is the most puzzling and apparently the least secure pattern.
    disorganized/disoriented
  50. At about 6 months, infants begin ________.
    Babbling
  51. When they lack the correct word, children may acrt on the basis of shared features and apply a word to a broader range of objects than is appropirate. this is known as ________.
    overextension
  52. ________ occurs, too; this is when children fail to apply a word to other members of the class.
    Underextension
  53. Labeled ________ by Roger Brown, these short sentences follow a rigid word order and contain only essential content words, leaving out all plurals, possessives, conjunctions, articles, and prepositions.
    telegraphic speech
  54. ________ is the kind of error that results when a grammatical rule is misapplied to a word that has an irregular plural or past tense.
    Overregularization
  55. Researchers often distinguish between two types of intelligence: ________--one's verbal ability and accumulated knowledge--tends to increase over the life span.
    Crystallized intelligence
  56. ________--abstract reasoning and mental flexibility--peaks in the early 20s and declines slowly as people age.
    Fluid intelligence
  57. Such activities are pursued as ends in themselves, simply becuase they are enjoyable, not becuase any external reward is attached. This type of motivation is know as ________.
    intrinsic motivation.
  58. Other motives from outside, as when some eternal stimulus, or ________, pulls or entices you to act.
    incentive
  59. When we act so as to gain some eternal reward or to avoid some undersirable consequence, we are pulled by ________.
    extrinsic motivation.
  60. For instance, in early research, Henry Murray developed the ________, which consists of ambiguos situations.
    Thematic Apperception Test
  61. One of the motives identified by Murray was the ________, or the motive "to accomplish something difficult.... To overcome obstacles and attain a high stnadard. to ecel one's self. To rival and surpass others. To increase self-regard by successful exercise of tlaent"
    need for achievement
  62. An aproach known as ________ provides a smoewhat different view of achievement motivation. According to this perspective, achievement motivation varies according to which of four goal orientaiton an individual adopts.
    goal orientatiion theory
  63. Students with a ________ will study and engage inother behaviors so as to increase their knowledge and overcome challenges. Thoes who have _______ orientation will exhibit whatever behaviors are neccesary to avoid failin to learn. Students with a ________ orientaion will measure their performance against that of other students and are motivatied to work to the point where they are at least equal to their peers. Finally, those who have a ________ orientation try to surpass their peers in an attempt to enhance their own sense of self-worth.
    • mastery approach
    • mastery avoidance
    • performance avoidance
    • performance approach
  64. Psychologist who apply their knowledge in the workplace are known as ________.
    industrial/organizational psychologist
  65. ________ can be thought of as "the conditions and processes that account for the arousal, direwction, magnitude, and maintenance of effort in a person's job"
    Work motivation
  66. ________ is characterized by an overwhelming, irrational fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, compulsive dieting to the point of self-starvation, and excessive weight loss.
    Anorexia nervosa
  67. As many as 50% of those with anorexia also develop ________, a chronic disorder characterized by repeated and uncontrolled (and often secretive) episodes of binge eating.
    bulimia nervosa

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