Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
2010-10-26 18:55:35

exam 3
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  1. "negative feedback mechanism"
    maintains normal levels
  2. hypothalmic hormone med
    • Gonadotropin releasing hormone: causes release of FSH & LH from pituitary
    • used to stiumlate ovulation & diagnose pituitary function
  3. hypothalmic hormone med: (2)
    • growth hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin): inhibits release GH
    • inhibits GI secretions and motility
    • used to treat severe diarrhea
  4. pituitary hormones
    • controlled by hypothalamus
    • include the anterior pituitary (adenohyphysis)
    • and posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
    • and intermediate lobe
  5. andenohypophysis includes
    • somatotropin (GH)
    • Corticotropin or ACTH (in adrenal cortex)
    • thyrotropin or TSH (thyroid)
    • follicle stiumlating hormone or FSH (ovaries)
    • Leutotropic hormone or LTH (lactation)
    • Leuenizing hormone or LH (ovaries & testicles)
  6. posterior pituitary (neurohypiphysis)
    • not a functioning gland *warehouse storage for antidiuretic hormone or ADH or vasopressin (fluid)
    • oxycotin (uterine contrations)
  7. intermediate lobe
    melanocyte hormone or MSH (pigment cells)
  8. somatotropin
    • growth hormone replacement
    • SE: hyperglycemia & hypothyroidism
  9. antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin
    makes you hold onto pee (water *retain fluid*), dehydrated, brain problems
  10. Low ADH or Vasopressin
    • diabetes insipidus
    • s/sx: excessive fluid loss, polyuria w/ dilute urine, concentrated blood, hypovolemic shock
  11. vasopressin
    • diagnostic purposes & emergency (vasoconstrictor)
    • 1st line in cardiac arrest
  12. DDAVP
    • desmopressin
    • intranasal form for maintaining therapy for ADH
    • very powerful
    • can lead to water intoxication & hyponatremia
  13. too much ADH
    • SIADH (Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone)
    • s/sx of too much fluid retention, minimal concentrated urine, diluted blood resulting in hyponatremia & CNS dysfunction
  14. other pituitary meds
    used in diagnostic evaluations
  15. thyroid gland
    • primary function is control rate of cellular metabolism
    • hormones: thyroxin (T4) & tri-iodothyronine (T3)
    • T4 converted to T3 (more active form)
    • thyrocalcitonin regulates calcium
  16. hyperthyroidism
    • HYPER! (tremors, weight loss, warm & flushed skin, exopthalmus)
    • toxic drugs: therefore used short-term
  17. propylthiouracil (PTU)
    • inhibits production of hormone & conversion of T4 to T3.
    • SE: bone marrow suppression that can bottom out WBC-->risk for infections
  18. Iodine solutions (SSKI)
    • inhibit TSH
    • SE: iodine toxicity (metallic taste, etc.)
    • stains teeth so drink w/ straw
  19. Radioactive iodine
    • diagnostic purposes
    • destroys the thyroid gland
  20. beta blockers
    used to control hyperthyroidism symptoms
  21. hypothyroidism
    • lethargy, weight gain, cool and dry skin, atherosclerosis (fat accumulation)
    • levothyroxine (synthroid)-synthetic T4 (drug of choice)
    • monitor HR/BP
    • take in AM to prevent insomnia
  22. parathyroid glands
    • maintain calcium level & calcium and phosphorous ratio
    • hyperparathyroid-chronic renal failure pt
  23. funtions of calcium
    • ^ calcium: low neuromuscular activity (hyperparathyrodism) *osteoperosis*
    • low calcium: high neuromuscular activity (hypoparthyroidism) *carpopedal spasm and osteoperosis
    • treat with TUM's & Vitamin D
  24. adrenal cortex
    • glucocorticoids (cortisol & cortisol-like) for stress and maintain BG, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant effects
    • mineral corticoids: aldosterone: retention of sodium and excretion of K
    • adrenal androgens: testosterone like hormones; secondary sex characteristics at puberty for M&F
  25. adrenal medulla
    • norepinephrine (maintain BP)
    • epinephrine (adrenalin)-response to stress
  26. Addison's disease
    • deficiency of adrenal hormones
    • s/sx: hypoglycemia, dehydration, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia, inability to respond to stress
    • treat w/ "steroids"
    • ADDison's-ADD hormone to treat it
  27. glucocoricosteroids
    • lower # of WBC, T-cells.
    • systemic effects on body esp. w/ high dose or long-term therapy
    • hyperglycemia, breakdown of protein-muscle wasting, breakdown of fat-oxidation of fatty acids, "moon face" and "buffalo hump"
  28. systemic effects on musculoskeletal (from steroids)
    • muscle atrophy
    • risk for fractures
    • resp. effects:inhibition of broncoconstriction
    • GI effects: risk for ulcers since interferes w/ gastric mucosa protection
  29. F/E effects of steroids
    • increase retention of Na and water
    • excretion of K and Ca
    • nervous system: slows activity
    • endocrine effect: suppression of cortisol-releasing hormone from hypothalamus-in turn suppresses cortisol from adrenal gland
    • life threatening
  30. general nursing principles r/t steroids
    • DO NOT abruptly discontinue
    • DO give according to Circadian rhythm
    • DO give w/ food
    • DO protect from infection/injury
    • Do monitor BG
    • DO monitor for fluid retention
  31. Cushing's Syndrome or Disease
    • most commonly bc of the steroids
    • excess of adrenal hormone
    • s/sx: fluid retention, hyperglycemia, hypertension, "buffalo hump", "moon face", gastric hyperacidity