Anti-hypertensives

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Author:
Christyna
ID:
45243
Filename:
Anti-hypertensives
Updated:
2010-10-26 19:12:16
Tags:
pharm
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Description:
exam 3
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  1. metabolic syndrome
    hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, 3X risk for heart disease, 24X risk for diabetes
  2. direct-acting vasodilators
    • act directly on arteriolar smooth muscle -->dilation & rapid decrease in BP
    • Nipride (nitroprusside)-used for really high BP
    • IV bag wrapped (photosensitive)
    • metabolized as cyanide
  3. adrenergic drugs
    • centrally acting
    • stiumlate alpha2 receptors in CNS to decrease SNS activity in periphery, decrease heart force, decrease vasoconstriction, decrease renin, decrease BP
    • Catapres-patch 7 days
  4. peripherally acting neuron blockers
    inhibit release of NE to decrease BP
  5. alpha 1 blockers
    • arteriole and venous vasodilation
    • decrease BP
    • "zosin" family
    • SE: significant orthostatic hypotension w/ first dose
  6. beta blockers
    • decrease SNS stimulation
    • decrease contractility
    • decrease tachycardia
  7. calcium channel blockers
    • vasodilation -- amlodipine (Norvasc)
    • peripheral edema
  8. angiotensin
    renin-release of angiotensin I-->angiotensin II through angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin II is powerful vasoconstrictor that ^ BP
  9. ACE inhibitors
    • block conversion to decrease angiotensin II
    • ARBs (angiotensin receptor blocker): block action of angiotensin II
    • diuretic 1st, ACE inhibitors 2nd *for hypertension*
  10. ACE inhibitors
    • "pril" family
    • SE: DRY COUGH!
    • angioedema: edema in small blood vessels-->airway obstruction
    • hyperkalemia
    • less effective in lowering BP in black pts
  11. Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)
    • "sartan" family
    • DOESN'T cause cough associated w/ ACEI for most ppl
  12. selective aldosterone receptor blockers
    • Potassium sparing diuretic
    • Na and water excretion reduces volume which reduces BP
    • SE: hyperkalemia
    • drug: Aldactone
  13. Thiazide & thiazide-like diuretics
    • mostly used to treat ^BP bc it's very cheap!
    • recommended 1st line to treat HTN

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