Anthropology 2 Exam 2

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Anthropology 2 Exam 2
2010-10-27 19:09:31
Anthro Exam

study guide notes exam 2
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  1. Neological Residence
    A post-marriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to set up an independent household away from both sets of parents.
  2. Descent Groups: Patrilineal, Matrilineal, Ambilineal, Bilateral
    • Patrilineal - A unilineal descent group passed on through males and traced to a common male ancestor.
    • Matrilineal - A unilineal descent group passed on through females and traced to a common female ancestor.
    • Ambilineal - A unilineal descent system in which some members of the society acquire and pass on descent affiliation through females, whereas others do so through males.
    • Bilateral - Descent that is traced equally through both mother and father.
  3. Nuer Subsistence Strategies
    Hunter/Gatherer, horticulture, nomadic herding, agriculture
  4. Techniques: Foraging, Agriculture, Horticulture, Pastoralism, Transhumance
    • Foraging - A food-procurement strategy that involves collecting wild plant and animal foods.
    • Agriculture - A subsistence strategy based on intensive, continuous use of land for the production of plant foods. Uses cultivation of soils, fertilizers, or irrigation.
    • Horticulture - A food-procurement strategy based on crop production without soil preparation, fertilizers, irrigation, or use of draft animals.
    • Pastoralism - A food producing strategy based on herding.
    • Transhumance - A variety of pastoralism in which herds are moved seasonally.
  5. Half-marriage of the Yurok
    When a couple maintained permanent Residence with the wife's family, with the children subsequently linked to that family.
  6. Advantages of Polygyny
    Polygyny is one man multiple wives. Advantages are: more wives = more workers, more wives = more children, more children = more potential workers. A man can also gain prestige from having multiple wives.
  7. Ethnographic Present
    Ethnography of a culture that is alive today
  8. Mead
    A fermented beverage made of water and honey, malt, and yeast
  9. Etic Perspective
    Outsider perspective
  10. Emic Perspective
    Insider perspective
  11. Egalitarian Status
    Members of a society having equal access to status, power, and wealth within the same category such as age or gender.
  12. Carrying Capacity
    The maximum population that a habitat can sustain
  13. Dowry
    A form of marriage finance in which valuable gifts are given by the bride's kin to the groom's kin.
  14. Bridewealth (brideprice)
    A form of marriage finance in which valuable gifts are given by the groom's kin to the bride's kin.
  15. Generalized Reciprocity
    Institutionalized gift giving and exchange between close kin; accounts are not kept, and there is no expectation of immediate return.
  16. Most Common Kinship System in North America
    The Eskimo System
  17. Sustainable Agriculture (pros and cons)
    • Pros - less pollution and soil erosion, better nutrition results
    • Cons - less profit to producers and higher costs to customers
  18. Achieved Status
    A status position that is earned through an individual's skills, actions, and accomplishments
  19. Ascribed Status
    The status a person is given at birth and over which that person has no control
  20. Nuclear Family
    A group consisting of a married couple and their children
  21. Monogamy
    A form of marriage in which one woman is married to one man
  22. Polyandry
    Marriage of one woman to 2 or more men
  23. Polygyny
    Marriage of one man to 2 or more women
  24. Female Genital Operations
    Removal of the foreskin of the clitoris
  25. Tibeten Polyandrous Marriage
    Marriage to 2 or more men by a woman
  26. Kindred
    Bilateral descent in which relatives calculate their degree of relationship to Ego
  27. Descent Group
    A group of people who share identity and come from a common ancestor
  28. Totem
    Mythical or symbolic ancestor of a clan
  29. Ego
    The person from whose point of view kinship relations are referenced
  30. Consanguineal kin
    Kin related by blood
  31. Affinal Kin
    Kin related by marriage
  32. Chromosomal Pairs
    Chromosomal pair - 23 chromosomes from each parent
  33. Matrilocal (Uxorilocal)
    After marriage the bride and groom live with or near the bride's mother
  34. Native California Groups' Staple Food
  35. Gender
    Masculine and feminine roles and the qualities assigned to these roles
  36. Anthro Definition of Technology
    The knowledge, tools, and skills used by humans to manipulate their environments
  37. Clan
    A descent group consisting of two or more lineages that trace their origin to a mythical ancestor
  38. Lineage
    A unilineal descent group that traces its consanguineal relatives back to a common ancestor
  39. Patrilocal (virilocal) Residence
    After marriage the bride and groom live with or near the groom's father
  40. Division of Labor
    The manner of dividing work based on criteria such as age or gender
  41. Gender Roles
    The tasks and behaviors assigned by a culture to each sex
  42. Sexual Orientation
    Heterosexual, Bisexual, Homosexual
  43. Balanced Reciprocity
    Exchange and gift giving with the expectation of a return of equal value within a reasonable period of time
  44. Levirate
    A marriage custom in which a widow marries her deceased husband's brother
  45. Sororate
    A marriage custom in which a widower marries a sister of his deceased wife
  46. Exogamy
    A cultural rule that dictates that one must marry outside of a designated group
  47. Endogamy
    A cultural rule that dictates that one must marry within a designated group
  48. "Non-Binary" Genders
    Don't fit in with either male or female