Test 1

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Author:
Mizeny
ID:
45314
Filename:
Test 1
Updated:
2010-11-01 23:38:22
Tags:
Pharmacology
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Description:
Drug Classifications
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  1. Antiviral
    Interferes with the viruses ability to reproduce in a cell. They are limited in there ability to treat viral infections viruses are tiny replicate inside the cell, changing how the cell works depending on the type of cell they invade.

    Uses:

    • Cytomegalovirus (transplant patients)
    • *HSV 1 & 2 & Herpes Zoster
    • *HIV
    • *Influenza
    • *Respiratory Syncytial virus
    • *Hep B & C

    • Adverse Reactions:
    • * Nausea, vomiting
    • * Diarrhea
    • * Heachache
    • *Rash
    • *Fever
    • *Insomnia

    • Contraindications:
    • *allergies to drugs
    • *Renal impairment
    • *unstable cardiac disease

    • Precautions:
    • *renal impairment
    • *low blood cell count
    • *hx of epilepsy
    • * Respiratory disease
    • Inhibit viral replication

    Zovirax, Valtrex, Tamiflu
  2. Antiretroviral
    • The multidrug therapy is called Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
    • Protease inhibitors: block the protease enzyme so the new viral particles cannot mature

    Reverse ranscritase inhibitors: block the reverse transcriptase enzyme so the HIV material can not change into DNA in the new cell

    Entry Inhibitors: prevent the attachment or fusion of HIV to the cell such as CCR5 inhibitors

    • Uses:
    • Treat HIV and AIDS

    • Adverse Reactions:
    • *Nausea, vomiting
    • *Diarrhea
    • *Altered taste
    • *Headache, fever, chills
    • *Rash
    • *Numbness & tingling in the circumoral area (around mouth) or peripherally, or both

    • Contraindications:
    • *Allergies to drug
    • *Lactating

    • Precautions:
    • * Patients w/Diabetes
    • *impared hepatic function
    • *pregnancy
    • *hemophilia
    • *Hx of bladder or kidney stones


    Managment of HIV infection

    AZT, Epivir, Norvir, Invirase, Viracept
  3. Antipyretic
    lower body temp by dilating peripheral blood vessels. Blood flows out to the extremeties, resulting in the dissipation of the heart of fever, which in turn cools the body

    Due to inhibition of protaglandins

    • Uses:
    • * relieves mild to moderate pain
    • * reduces body temp
    • * inflammation
    • * Decreases chance of MI
    • * Help Maintain pregnancy

    • Adverse Reaction:
    • * Gastric upset, heartburn, nausea, vomiting
    • * Anorexia
    • * GI bleeding

    • Contraindications
    • *Hypersensitivity to salicylates or NSAIDs
    • * Bleeding disorders
    • * Children with influenza or chicken pox (Reye's syndrome)

    • Precautions:
    • * During Lactation
    • *Hepatic & renal failure
    • *Hypoprothrombinemia
    • * Vitamin K deficiency
    • * GI irritation, peptic ulcers
    • *Mild Diabetes or gout

    Reduces fever

    Acetaminophen (tylenol) asprin, ibuprofen (Advil)
  4. Anti-infection
    Bacteriostatic (slows or retards the mulitplication of bacteria) or Bactericidal (destroys bacteria)

    Treatment and Prophylaxis of various bacterial

    Ampicillin, Augmentin
  5. Antifungal
    Fungicidal (able to destroy fungi) or Fungistatic (able to slow or retard the multiplication of fungi

    Treatment of fungal infection

    Diflucan, Lotrimin, Nizoral, Monistat, Sporanox

    • Adverse Reaction:
    • *Headache
    • *Rash
    • *Anorexia and Malaise
    • *Abdominal,joint, or muscle pain
    • *Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

    • Contraindications:
    • *allergy to drug
    • *during pregnancy & Lactation
    • * sever liver disease

    • Precautions:
    • *Used Cautiously w/patients with renal dysfunction or hepatic impairment.
  6. Sulfonamides
    *Antibacterial agents(work actively against bacteria)

    *Primarily BACTERIOSTATIC (inhibit the activity of folic acid in bacterial cell metabolism) and is well absorbed by the GI system & excreted by the kidneys.

    *Gram+ & - bacteria

    *Once the rate of the bacterial multiplication is slowd, the body's own defense mechanisms are able to rid the body of the invading microorganism and therefor control the infection

    • Uses:
    • *UTI
    • *Ulcerative colitis
    • *2nd & 3rd degree burns

    • Adverse Reaction:
    • *Anorexia
    • *Nausea, vomitting
    • *Diarrhea, abdominal pain
    • *Stomatitis (inf of mouth)
    • *Chills, fever
    • *Crystalluria
    • *Photosensitivity
    • *Urticaria, pruritus, toxic epidermal necrolysis
    • *Steven-Johnson Syndrome

    • During Prolonged therapy:
    • *Leukopenia
    • *Thrombocytopenia
    • *Aplastic Anemia

    • Contraindications:
    • *allegic to sulfonamides
    • *during lactation
    • *childeren under 2
    • *at the end of pregnancy

    • Precautions
    • *renal impairment
    • *Hepatic impairment
    • *Asthma
    • *Allergies
    • *Pregnancy

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