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2010-10-27 09:41:50
Psychology Learning

Test 2
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  1. First Signal System
    Stimuli signaling biologically significant events. It consists of learned and unlearned reactions to Stimuli (CR & UR)
  2. Second Signal System
    • Language. Based on the same principles as classical conditioning.
    • a - verbal conditioning : influences word usage through reinforcement
    • b-Semantic conditioning: studies generalization between words

    • note: Verbal generalizations are made with the meaning of the word, not the sound...i.e. Sea and Ocean ; NOT Sea and See
    • - up to 8 years old generalizations to homonyms
    • - Age 11 generalize antonyms
    • - Age 14 generalize synonyms
  3. Classical Conditioning
    Type of Conditioning where a CS is given
  4. Instrumental Conditioning
    Type of conditioning that operates on an emitted response
  5. Classical and Instrumental Conditioning
    • Similar because of:
    • Rewards
    • Demonstrate Learning phenomena (extinction, recover, etc..)
    • Often both forms blend together
  6. Problem's with Pavlov's Theory
    • 1 - CRs are more than little URs
    • CRs may take different forms with different CSs
    • i.e. Mimic UR's
    • Prepare the organism for the US
    • Be antagonistic to the UR
    • 2 - Extinction seems to result from interference rather than inhibition
    • According to Bouton: the CS occurs without a US during extinction therefore there is competing learning
  7. Renewal Effect
    A CR, extinguished in an environment different from the environment in which it was learned, reappears if the organism is returned to the original learning environment
  8. Reinstatement
    A CR reappears after being presented with a CS after extinction if the US is again presented unpaired
  9. Overshadowing
    The observation that the most salient component of a compound stimulus will become conditioned to a US and the weaker component will not.

    example: Loud Tone and Weak Light as compound CS - Loud tone would become conditioned to a US.

    Sounds usually form better CSs
  10. Blocking
    (t1)Light (t2)Light + Tone (test) Tone (result) No CR

    (t1)------------- (t2)Light + Tone (test) Tone (result) CR
  11. Type of Contingency where a CS is followed by a US
    Forward/Positive Contingency
  12. Type of Contingency where a CS is never paired or followed by a US
    Backward/Negative Contingency
  13. Contingency where the CS-US Relationship is random
    Truly Random/Zero Contingency
  14. Type of Contingency that produces an inhibited response
    Backward/Negative Contingency
  15. Best type of contingency for a control group
    Truly Random/Zero Contingency : by using a control group that is only exposed to the CS with no US research accidently pairs the CS with a negative contingency
  16. When organisms learn that their behavior is independent of outcomes, they sometimes give up trying. Such animals ecome passive and withdrawn and seem to accept whatever happens to them. Often associated with the emotional state of depression in Humans
    Learned Helplessness : an inescapable shock given to a rat, then tested with avoidance training will not try to avoid the shock - they have already been conditioned that they cannot avoid the shock
  17. Organisms pay attention to environmental stimuli looking for clues about what is coming. Blocking (2nd CS) works because the organism has already found a good clue so 2nd CS gets ignored. Theory also explains Pre-Exposure Effect where Rescola and Wagner's theory doesn't
    Mackintosh's Attention Theory
  18. Presenting a CS without a US, then pair CS to US animals will not condition as well as if it was a novel CS
    Pre-Exposure Effect : a part of Mackintosh's Attention Theory
  19. We learn to the extent that we process things, and we process things that are suprising. US is something suprising (food, shock, etc.) If a CS signals the US coming it predicts the US, therefore the US is no longer suprising.
    Kamin and Wagner Suprise Theory
  20. 2nd CS is presented after 1st CS has already alleviated suprise of US therefore there is no longer any suprise to process
    Blocking explained by Kamin and Wagner's Suprise Theory
  21. After a truly random control is used a CS is harder to condition when a CS-US contingency is introduced. Refers to the diminished efficacy of a CS that is used in a random control condition.

    << Rescorla & Wagner postulated that pre-exposure would have no effect, Mackintosh explains that no predictive value was introduced, Kamin & Wagner postulate there was no need to process so it was ignored. Mackintosh and Kamin & Wagner explain better >>
    Learned Irrelevance
  22. CS pre-exposure (no US) leads to poorer conditioning when a contingent US is paired to it. The decrement in acquisition of a CR due to pre-exposure of a CS
    Latent Inhibition
  23. Describes the facilitation of conditioning that occurs when an established conditioned inhibitor (CS) is subsequently paired with a US
  24. Animals don't learn new responses, but a cognitive expectancy about when to exhibit appropriate species-specific reactions
    Bolles Expectancy Theory
  25. Formed when a CS is correlated with an important outcome like US presence or Absence (very similar to Classical Conditioning) (Bolles)
    Stimulus Expectancy
  26. Formed between responses and outcomes (similar to instrumental conditioning) (Bolles)
    Response Expectancy
  27. Long delay can still cause conditioning. Ease of learning is remarkable (1st trial). Very extinction resistant. Shock had no influence on conditioning, but nausea does
    Garcia - Taste Aversion
  28. Believed there here three inborn emotions : Fear, Rage, Love. Emotion were developed from those three and paired with other CS through classical conditioning. Emotion is based on 1 - heredity and 2 - experience. Founder of behaviorism
  29. School of psychology that does not use introspection, avoids innate behaviors, and doesn't discuss mental processes.
  30. Showed it was easier to condition fear to an animate object than an inanimate object by recreating Watson's baby Albert experiment. Disproved Watson and Pavlov's theories. Probably a biological predisposition because it would have been adaptive
  31. Learning theory that focused on Contiguity and Frequency with no intrest in reinforcement. Encounter stimulus then instinctive response : s-r-(s)-r-(s)-r
    Watson's Learning Theory
  32. The procedure whereby a conditioned stimulus is presented but is not followed by reinforcement. Under these circumstances, the magnitude of the conditioned response gradually becomes smaller until the CS no longer elicits a CR
  33. Technique used to eliminate undesirable behavior whereby a CS is paired with a US other than the one that originally reinforced the undesirable behavior. For example, if a CS was originally followed by a shock, thus producing fear, the CS could be paired with food, thus producing a response incompatible with fear
  34. Organism is forced to experience feared CSs long enough to learn that an aversive experience will not follow, thus creating the conditions necessary for extinction
  35. Therapeutic technique developed by Wolpe where a phobia is extinguished by having a client approach the feared experience one small step at a time while relaxing after each step. Approx 90% success rate
    Systematic Desensitization
  36. Therapy based on behavior and not unconscious processes
    Behavioral Therapy
  37. Study of the mind's influence over physiological health. i.e. chemotherapy reduces immune system, over time Ps immune system can reduce entering the parking lot to the clinic.