Geology Test #3

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upcpk
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45352
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Geology Test #3
Updated:
2010-10-27 00:12:35
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Geologic Time Earth\'s Evolution through Geologic Time Ocean Floor Ocean Life Dynamic Ocean
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Quizes 11-15
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  1. An unconformity is a buried _______.
    surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below
  2. Catastrophism _________
    was a philosophy that was first expounded by the early Greeks
  3. Consider the names of the eras in the geologic time scale. What is meant by "zoic"?
    Life; living things
  4. Which of the following geologic observations would not bear directly on working out the sequence of geologic events in an area?
    the feldspar and quartz contents of a granite
  5. What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it?
    law of superposition
  6. The ______ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata?
    Principle of fossil succession
  7. Which of the following is an essential characteristic of an index fossil?
    The organism only lived for a short period of geologic time
  8. By applying the law of superposition _____ dates can be determined
    relative
  9. About 88% of geologic time is represented by the time span called the _____.
    Precambrian
  10. What is the age of the Earth accepted by most scientists today?
    4.5 billion years
  11. Visualize five horizontal sedimentary strata exposed in a cliff or canyon wall identified by consecutive numbers, 1 being the lowest bed and 5 being the highest. How old are 1, 3 and 4 relative to each other?
    Beds 1 and 3 are older than bed 4
  12. A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because...
    worms have no hard parts
  13. Which of the following gases was NOT part of Earth's original atmosphere?
    oxygen
  14. During the early Paleozic era, South America, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, India, and perhaps China comprised the vast southern continent of ______
    Gondwanaland
  15. Which type of bacteria thrived in environment that lack free oxygen?
    anaerobic
  16. Which era of geologic time spans about 88% of Earth's history?
    Precambrian
  17. Mammals became the dominant land animals during the ____ era.
    Cenezoic
  18. Due to a virtual absence of land plants and certain animals, fossil fuels are notably absent in ____ rocks.
    Precambrian
  19. The major source of free oxygen in the atmosphere is from ______
    green plants
  20. The process in which plants use light energy to synthesize food sugars from carbon dioxide is called _____.
    photosynthesis
  21. Each continents contains large "core areas" of Precambrian rocks referred to as ____
    shields
  22. By the close of the Paleozoic, all the continents had fused into the single super continent of _____
    Pangaea
  23. The most exonomically important resource in Cenozoic strata of the Gulf Coast is _______
    petroleum
  24. Which era is sometimes called the "age of dinosaurs"?
    Mesozoic
  25. It is thought that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by _____
    turbidity currents
  26. Seamounts are ______
    volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
  27. Which of the following is associated with ocean ridges?
    • Rift zones
    • mountainous topography
    • volcanic structures
    • all of these
  28. Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called ______
    terrigenous sediment
  29. The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the _____.
    continental shelf
  30. An echo sounder operates by measuring the time required for a ______.
    sound pulse travels from a ship to the seafloor and back
  31. The oceans cover approximately ____% of Earth's surface.
    70
  32. The _____ Ocean is largest
    Pacific
  33. Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following statements is true?
    The Southern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Northern Hemisphere
  34. "Black Smokers" are associate with ____-
    • oceanic ridges
    • mineral-rich waters
    • hot water
    • all of these
  35. The total amount of solid material dissolved in water is known as ____
    salinity
  36. THe most abundant salt in seawater is _____
    NaCl
  37. Salinity in the ocean is highest in regions where ____ is high and ____ is low.
    evaporation; precipitation
  38. A rapid change in temperature with depth in the ocean is called the _______
    thermocline
  39. Density in seawater is determined by ______
    temp and salinity
  40. Most marine animals live near the surface of the ocean becuase of _____, which supports photosynthesis by marine algae that form the basis of the food chain.
    sunlight
  41. Organisms, such as algae and bacteria, that drift with ocean furrents are known as ____.
    plankton
  42. Animals capable of moving independently of the ocean currents, by swimming or other means of propulsion, are called _____.
    nekton
  43. Open ocean of any depth where animals swim or float freely is known as the ____ zone.
    pelagic
  44. In the food chain, each feeding stage is called a ____ level.
    trophic
  45. T or F
    The upper part of the ocean into which sunlight pentrates is called the photic zone
    true
  46. T or F
    Productivity in the oceans is highest in tropical regions
    false
  47. Which of the following is correct regarding a wave in the open ocean?
    water particles move in an almost circular path
  48. The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed _____.
    long shore current
  49. Which one of the following is a landfrom createdb by wave erosion?
    sea arch
  50. A sandbar that completely crosses a bay, sealeing it off from the open ocean is a _____.
    • sea stanck
    • tombolo
    • coastal barrier
    • none of these
  51. A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a _____
    spit
  52. Which of the following is a tidal current?
    both flood and ebb tide
  53. The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from _____
    prevailing winds
  54. Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ___ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.
    right
  55. Large estuaries are more common on a ____ coastline.
    Submergent
  56. T or F
    Although the sun influences the tides, its effect is considerably less that the effect of the moon.
    True

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