Psychology Chapter 6

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Kaha
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45424
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Psychology Chapter 6
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2010-10-27 09:33:14
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Learning
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Learning
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  1. Learning
    Some experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of a learner.
  2. Habituation
    A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding.
  3. Classical Conditioning
    When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response
  4. Unconditioned Stimulus
    Something that reliably produces a naturally occuring reaction in an organism.
  5. Unconditioned Response
    A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
  6. Conditioned Stimulus
    Initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism
  7. Conditioned Response
    A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus.
  8. Aqcuisition
    The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and US are presented together
  9. Second-Order Conditioning
    Conditioning where the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a CS.
  10. Extinction
    The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented.
  11. Spontaneous Recovery
    The tendency of a learned behaviour to recover from extinction after a rest period.
  12. Generalization
    The process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during the acquisition
  13. Discrimination
    The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli
  14. Biological Preparedness
    A propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others.
  15. Operant Conditioning
    A type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.

    Principles:

    1. Fixed Interval Schedule (FI) - reinforcements are presented at fixed time perioods, provided that the appropriate response is made.

    2. Variable Interval Schedule (VI) - behaviour is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement

    3. Fixed Ration Schedule (FR) - reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made.

    4. Variable Ratio Schedule (VR) - delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses

    5. Intermittent Reinforcement - Only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement. The effect? The fact that operant behaviours that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement.
  16. Law of Effect
    behaviours that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated.
  17. Operant behaviour
    has impact on the environment
  18. Reinforcer
    any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
  19. Punisher
    any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behaviour that lead to it
  20. Overjustification effect
    Circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intristic satisfaction of performing a behaviour
  21. Shaping
    Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive approximations to a final desired behavior.
  22. Latent Learning
    A condition in which something is learned but is not manifested as a behavioural change until sometime in the future.
  23. Cognitive Map
    A mental representation of the physical features of the environment.
  24. Observational Learning
    learn by watching
  25. Implicit Learning
    largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of the info acquisition

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