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7 basic assumptions of Performance Studies
- 1 It examines behavior as an object of study
- 2 It involves doing performance
- 3Participate oversavtion4Frequently involved in social practices and advocacy5Performance should be seen as a broad spectrum or continuum of behaviors
- 6P.S. views culture groups in 2 ways
- Always interacting-one affecting another
- Culture groups have distinct identies
- 7 We live in a wolrd of multiple literacies which are performed
Explain the first 4 Assumptions of Performance Studies
- Performance Studies examines behavior as an object of study.
- i.How is one acting? Very revealing
- ii.Example pick-up lines
- Performance Studies involves doing performance.
- i. Reveals more than simple “study of”
- ii.Entering into the role
- iii Heuristic – potentially receive additional meanings you cannot get from the outside
- Participant Observation.
- i.Method used to study performance
- ii.“Ethnography” – example studying bluegrass people by touring as a beginner
- iii. Observe by being a participant!
- Frequently involved in social practices and advocacy.
- i. How do people “practice” their lines?
- ii. “Ideology” – a system of beliefs
- 1. Neutral term – positive connotation
- 2. If ideologically driven, ideas become more important than others, “blinded by the light” – negative connotation
Explain the last 3 assumptiosn of Performance studies
- Performance should be seen as a broad spectrum or continuum of behaviors. i. Continuum – example walking distance, but must analyze how, that done before, etc… ii. Nothing truly original in our behaviors
- iii. Complex in methodology!
Performance Studies views culture groups in 2 ways:
- i. Always interacting – one affecting another
- 1. Think of ancient trade even when language was different
- 2. Anthropological point
- 3. Creates identity within a group
- 4. Think of family rules to reflect values and upbringing
- ii. Culture groups have distinct identities
- 1. X with circle around it – what is and is not
- 2. Knowing your place in society
- 3. Perform your identity
- 4. Can create alienation!
- 5. Identities created by television shows
We live in a world of multiple literacies which are performed.
- 1.Internet (text messaging) – “electronic literacy”
- 2.Nonverbals – “body literacies”
- 3. Jargin, categories of music – “aural literacies”
- Art – “visual literacies”
Two histories of Performance studies (two narratives lines of the dicipline: NYU story;
i. 1st called Performance Studies in 1980
- ii. Emerged from theatre
- 1. Schechner befriended Victor Turner, an anthropologist
- 2. Anthropological perspective joins with theatre (performance)
- 3. “Psychological realism” – western tradition
- 4. Gets “staged” in someway – example protests, ballet, street performance
Two histories of Performance Studies (two narrative lines of the discipline NU/LSU oral interpretation story
- The Northwestern University Line (LSU) i. Emerged from Oral Interpretation
- 1. Rhetoric and public address
- 2. English departments
- 3. Idea of Oral Interpretation contested
- 4.“Active engagement” when interpret yourself
- 5. Investigate process of meaning – how?
- 6. Should look at non-canonical literature? (“Canon” – an excepted body of knowledge/literature)
ii. Emphasis on Literature
- 1. More than NYU Line
- 2. Literature, in some ways, reflects culture(s)
What is meant by calling P.S. interdisciplinary?
- i. Will take from any knowledge base to understand/interpret
- ii. Anthropology, Sociology, Technology
- Causes and reasons for affects – broad
What is meant by calling P.S. anti-disciplinary?
- i. NOT LIMITED!
- ii.Free to look everywhere and include anything
Text/Event/Performer/Audience approach to examining performance
- i. Something written – does not need to be traditional
- ii.Object, form, action
- Event – Scene, setting, purpose of event
- Performer(s) – Actor, group, volunteer from audience
- Audience – public, private, difference between them
What does Mead mean by Symbolic Interaction?
All forms of communication other than words themselves: includes inflection and other vocal qualities as well as several other behaviors such as shrugs, blushing, and eye movements.
Defs. of Mind & Self, how they are similar concepts and also diff.
- Mind- in symbolic interaction theory, the ability to use significant symbols. Mind is acquired through symbolic interaction with others
- Self- The ability to reflect on oneself from the perspective of others. Self is not present at birth but is acquired through symbolic interactions with others.
Def. of I & Me
- I- In symbolic interaction theory, the phase or part of self that is impulsive creative and unconstrained by social norms and knowledge.
- Me- the phase or part of self that is socially aware, analytical and evaluative
The diffs. betw. Particular Others & Generalized Other and how ea. contribs. to meaning making
- Particular Others- In symbolic interaction theory, an individual who is significant to another person.
- Generalized Other- the organized perspectives of a social group, community or society.
Be sure to look at the Critical Assessment of Symbolic interaction theory
The point of view that claims society predates individuals who acquire minds and selfs in the process of interacting symbolically with other members of a culture. symbols are also necessary to the functioning and continuation of collective life.
K. Burke’s Dramatism—why called Dramatism?
The point of view that life is a drama that can be understood in dramatic terms such as act, agent scene, agency and purpose. Identification is viewed as the primary goal of symbolic interaction, and gilt is viewed as the ultimate motive for communication.
Dramatistic pentad (Hexed)
The method of conducting dramatistic analysis of communication in terms of act, scene, agent, agency and purpose. Later, attitude was added as a sixth element of the method, making it a hexed
In dramatism, any tension, discomfort, sense of shame, or other displeased feeling that humans experience; the motive of all human action.
In dramatism, a social ordering in which phenomena, including people, are classified into groups with different value, status or rank
the principal goal of communication two metholds of ridding ourself of guilt are avialible: mortification blaming ourselfs or vietimage which involves identifying all external source for some apparent failing or sin
Perfection and the Negative
- Guilt arises because of the gap between what is the case and the perfection that we can imagine because we can identivy perfection yet we can never achieve it we feel rotten
- the Negative is our ability to name the negative or what should not be is the basis of moral judgements, its difficult ot avoid guilt about disobeying some rule we've created or believe in
Walter Fisher’s Narrative Paradigm (or Theory). Why does he define N. so broadly?
The point of view that humans are nartural storytellers and that most if not all communication is storytelling
What other paradigm is Fisher contrasting his Narrative paradigm with?
What does the N. paradigm then be able to do?
What is N. rationality? N. coherence? N. fideltity?
- Narrative rationality is narrative theory, the judgement of the quality of narratives or storeis accouridng ot their coherence to fedility
- Narrative Coherence- a standard for judging the quality of a story according to whether it is internally consisitant, completeand behavable
- Narrative Fideltity-one standard for judging a story's quality according to whether it "rings true"