Biotechnology

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Author:
icimmy
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45441
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Biotechnology
Updated:
2010-10-27 11:27:43
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1st midterm
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  1. What is immunity?
    Ability of the body to defend against infection agents, foreign cells, abnormal cells
  2. What are the immunity system's three lines of defense?
    • Physical barrier
    • Innate immune system
    • Acquired or Adaptive Immunity
  3. What is a physical barrier? give an example
    The immunity system's first line of defense. skin, mucus, tears
  4. What are interferons?
    • Called cytokines
    • serve as signals during immune response
  5. What are anitmicrobial agents?
    Act to deter or destroy microorganisms
  6. What is lactoferrin and transferrin and where are is each found?
    • They reduce iron so bacteria can't grow (bacteria needs iron)
    • Lactoferrin- milk saliva, mucus, tears
    • Transferrin- blood
  7. What is a complement?
    A family of more than 20 proteins in the blood serum.
  8. How do complements work?
    • Coat pathogen so phagocytes can ingulf
    • lyse cell wall
    • Release substances like histamine that increase inflamation
    • Attract lymphocytes to the infection site
  9. What do phagocytic cells do?
    • Engulf and devour pathogen
    • uses lysozymes, nucleases, proteases etc
  10. What are the two types of phagocytic cells?
    • Stationary (macrophages) engulf cells
    • Wandering (leukocytes)
  11. What are the two types of leukocytes?
    • Neutrophils- best on bacteria
    • Monocytes - mobile phase of macrophage
  12. What are the 3 nonphagocytic cells?
    • Basophils- Inflammation and allergies
    • Eosinophils- phagocytic and used against parasitic worms
    • Lymphocytes- acquired immunity
  13. What are natural killer cells?
    Non-phagocytic cells that kill infected cells
  14. What are lymphocytes?
    T, B and NK cells and are circulated in lymphatic system and blood
  15. What are B-lymphocytes?
    • Made in bone marrow
    • Naive B
    • Plasma cellsm (effector)
    • Memory B-
  16. What is the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)?
    • Body cell antigens that identify the cells of the body as a self.
    • Activates B and T cells
  17. What are antibodies (immunoglobulins)?
    Made of 2 heavy and 2 light polypeptide chains
  18. What are the immune system disorders?
    • Hypersensitivity
    • Autoimmune disorder
    • Immune-complex hypersensitivity

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