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What drives the Primacy effect and how does it relate to the Modal model?
Primacy Effect is driven by rehersal. According to the Modal Model because words that are at the beggining of a list have more time to be rehearsed, they are better transfered into long term memory
what does the Modal model say about the recency effect?
the Modal model explains that the recency effect reflects words or items that are being kept in STM, therefore people have a better chance to rehearse them
How can we tell that the recency effect is not driven by rehearsal?
When we place a distracter task between the last item and the recall of the list. we see that the recency effect disapears. When we place a distracter in between each item then we experience the recency effect again.
What is the slope of the recency effect determined by?
The slope of the recency effect is determined by the "Ratio Rule" which states that knowing the gap between items and the gap between the test and the list of items will determine the slope.
what is Temporal Distinctiveness?
Temporal Distinctiveness says that we tend to clump items or groups together when we recall, the more time has elapsed since we learned the items
what causes the recency effect?
We don't know!!!
What are some problems wiht the modal model??
predictions for the digit span test failed, the model doesnt differentiate between rehearsal of different forms of information. and STM is neglected in some contexts
what is the working memory model?
Originally baddeley's working meory had three components:
Central executive which was the supervisor of the other two slave systems
The phonological loop: deal with auditory memory and language recognition
Visuospacial sketch pad: It is assumed that this slave system holds information we see and is used for manipulation of spatial and visual information.
what parts of the phonological loop are involved in the actual loop?
The phonological store and the articularoty control process make up the phonological loop
What is the difference between the modal model and the working memory model
the difference between the modal model and the working memory model is that there is separate rehearsal from each control processs which allows for flexible use of information.
- The Phono. Loop mediates verbal rehearsal and maintanence
- The Visuospacial Sketch pad mediates visual maintenance
What are the components of the Phonological Loop?
The components of the Phonological Loop are the phonological Store (Inner Ear) and the Articulatory Control Process (Inner Voice)
What is the evidence for the Phonological Loop
Evidence for the phonological loop is that immediate recall is impaired when items sound alike.
also Articulatory Suppresion which is the verbal memory of people being impaired when asked to do something irrelevant aloud. this stops articulatory rehearsal and phonological loop decay
What is the word length effect?
The word length effect states that the longer a word is, the harder it will be to remember.
How do some STM disorders show evidence for the phonological loop?
Some STM disorders show that patients have no immediate recall but can still access the meaning of words.
Patients like KF have damage in the left perisylvian cortex which could cause disruption in connection between areas that process phonology and areas involved in articulation.
What is the area in the frontal brain involved in speech related motor control?
The area in the frontal Brain involved in speech related motor control is called Broca's Area.
What happens to the Perisylvian cortex and Broca's area when there is a memory delay in verbal working memory experiments?
Both the Perisylvian cortex and Broca's area show systained activity during those memory delays
What parts of the brain does verbal rehearsing involve?
Verbal rehearsing involves both posterior areas involved in phonological perception and anterioir areas of the brain involved in articulatory control
What drives the Primacy Effect?
The Primacy Effect is driven by rehearsal; items at the beginning of a list are given more time for reheasal and therefor have been transfered from STM into LTM according to the Modal Model
What happens to the primacy effect when you plot a functional serial position curve?
When you plot a functinal serial postion curve you lose the primacy effect
What is the digit span task?
When patients are given a list of numbers to remember (ex. 8 numbers) and if they recall all the numbers, then a second list is give with more numbers (ex. 12 numbers)
What is double dissociation?
Double dissociation is when two mental processes are shown to work or function independently of each other
What did Patient KF show?
Patient KF Showed that there is double dissociation between STM and LTM
In Baddeley's experimentation onf patient PV show?
Baddeley's experiments on patient PV showed that not only were STM and LTM double dissociative but also that there was different types of information that were processed for STM and LTM
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