Psychology 202 midterm
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What is the difference between a Psychiatrist and a Clinical Psychologist?
- Psychiatrists: MDs, go to medical school and specialize in psychiatry, can prescribe medication.
- Clinical Psychologists: PhDs, go to graduate school in pyschology, generally cannot prescribe medication.
- BOTH work with people with mental illness.
Define Case Study.
In depth observation of one person or a small group.
Why are case studies hard to generalize (how would this apply to someone else)?
Unknown background or history.
What are the goals of science?
A hypothetical account for explaining a phenomenon.
Proposed, testable relationship between two or more variables.
Things that can vary.
Define Categorical Variables and give and example.
- Values are different members of a category.
- Ex: Nationality
Define Continuous Variable and give and example.
- Values vary in magnitude along some dimension.
- Ex: Income
Define Predictor Variable.
Variable that is hypothesized to produce a change in...
Define Outcome Variable.
Variable hypothesized to show a difference when value of predictor is changed.
Define Manipulated Variables.
Predictor variables that the researcher controls and changes.
What makes up a True Experiment?
Experimenter manipulates (controls and changes the value of) the independent variable; everything else is held constant.
Define Independent Variable.
Variable the experimenter manipulates while holding all other starting conditions constant (varies independently of everything else).
Define Dependent Variable.
Variable whose value is hypothesized to vary according to value of independent variable (value depends on independent variable).
Define Correlational Research.
When the predictor variable is not manipulated.
Define Subject Variables and give and example.
- Non-manipulated variables (often predictors) associated with qualities of the subjects in your study
- Ex: IQ, nationality, virgin/not virgin
How do you know if two variables are correlated?
When one changes, the other does too.
What is the Correlation Coefficient?
- Measure of how closely the values of two variables are related to each other.
- *Ranges from -1.0 to 1.0
Define Positive Correlation.
When one number goes up, the other goes up.
Define Negative Correlation.
When one number goes up, the other goes down.
Define Perfect Correlation.
One variabel can be EXACTLY predicted from the other (-1.0 or 1.0 correlation).
Why does correlation not equal causality?
When two (or more) variables are correlated it means there is a relationship between them, it does not mean one caused the other.
What are causal possibilites with a correlation? Give examples.
- a causes b (watching violent tv causes aggressive kids)
- b causes a (aggression causes kids to watch violent tv)
- c causes a & b (third variable explanation: lack of parental supervision causes violent tv watching AND aggressive kids)
Does causation imply correlation? Why? Give and example.
- Yes because if something causes something else, it should be correlated with it.
- Ex: if dancing causes me to sweat, then whenever I dance, I should sweat.
Describe Confound/Confounding Variable.
Variable that produces an effect that is confused (confounded) with the effects of the intended predictor variable.
When do Confounds occur?
When we don't manipulate the independent variable or don't hold everything else constant.
Describe the Placebo Condition.
Experimental condition that research participants think or expect will have some effect, but which in fact is inhert (has no effects).
What does it mean to Operationalize?
To turn an abstract concept into a variable that can be measured or manipulated.
What are the main problems with self report?
- Only good if report is honest
- Social desirability bias
- Some people can't report
- Stability or consistency in measurement.
- The extent to which a measure is stable and consistant over time in similar conditions.
What is test-retest reliability?
If an experiment has test-retest reliability you will get the same results at two different points in time.
What is inter-rater (or, inter-observer) reliability?
The degree to which two (or more) raters or observers agree that they have seen the same thing.
The extent to which the data collected address the research hypothesis in the way intended.
Stimulus that prompts a person to act in a particular way.
What are the levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
- 5. Self-Actualization
- 4. Esteem
- 3. Affiliation
- 2. Safety & Security
- 1. Basic, Physiolgical
What are considered hunger cues in the brain?
- Lateral Hypothalamus: ("on" switch) stimulating it increases motivation to eat; destroying it causes rats to stop eating (for a while)
- Ventromedial hypothalamus: ("off" switch) part of the brain that is related to messages to stop eating
What are eating cues (other than in the brain)?
- "mechanical cues" - stomach walls contract
- glucose and lipid sensors in blood
- social cues
What is the set point theory?
We all have a natural weight that our body tends toward.
What are key factors of Bulimia?
- Mostly women (90%)
- More common among college women
- Related to anxiety, depression, impulse control
- Problems with serotonin regulation?
What are key factors of Anorexia?
- Mostly women
- Rarer than bulimia
- 15-30% die of complications
- Culturally specific
- Related to OCD and perfection
- More genetic?
What are some unconscious motives for Anorexia?
- Avoid womanhood (secondary sex characteristics, menstral periods may stop, stay "small")
- Struggle for control
What are the 5 basic emotions (seen across cultures)?
How do we define a basic emotion?
- All languages have a word for the emotion
- Universal correlates of the emotion (social expression)
What are display rules?
What is considered appropriate expression of emotions and when, vary across culture.
What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?
- 1. stimulus
- 2. physiological response (bodily changes) to stimulus
- 3. interpretaion of bodily changes producess emotion
What are criticisms of James-Lange theory?
- Body reaction too slow - emotion perceived faster than body reacts
- Physical changes alone don't produce powerful emotions
- Not a unique physiological response for each emotion
What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
stimulus leads simultaneously to physiological state and emotion.
Define Misattribution of Arousal.
Attributing arousal to wrong source.
What are 3 limits to misattribution effects?
- 1. subtle differences in physiological responses for different emotions
- 2. real source of arousal can't be salient (ambiguity helps)
- 3. arousal not necessary for emotion
What is the role of appraisal in emotion?
Not just event, but our perception of event causes emotions.
Pattern of responses an organism makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium and tax or exceed its ability to cope.
Stimulus events that cause stress.
What is the difference between eustress and distress?
What are the stages of Selye's General Adaption Syndrome?
- Stage 1: alarm reaction, "fight or flight" (Taylor's "tend and befriend")
- Stage 2: Resistance
- Stage 3: Exhaustion
What supports "tend and befriend" hypothesis?
- 1. Fight or flight pattern more pronounced in men than women.
- 2. Androgens (male hormones) are important in fight option; higher level in men than women.
- 3. Oxytocin - "calming" hormone that inhibits flee response-present in higher levels in women than men.
- 4. Women not fleeing or fighting may have helped protect offspring.
- 5. Women's survival advantages may be tied to being socially well-connected.
What did Cohen, Tyrrell & Smith determine?
If you are exposed to a cold virus, your chances of getting sick are only 20-60%
An Individual's attempt to deal with stress.
Define Learned Helplessness.
- Pattern of non-response following exposure to non-contingent, inescapable aversive stimuli.
- State where we perceive no control over our fate and thus no longer try to take control.
Define Cognitive Development.
Changes in processes of the mind.
Define Social Development.
Changes in interactions and relationships with other people.
Define Physical Development.
Changes in the body and physiology.
Define Fluid Intelligence.
Intellectual capacities that have no specific content, but are used in processing info; problem solving ability.
Define Crystallized Intelligence.
People's store of knowledge.
What are some cognitive changes that occure as we age?
- 1. Memory for new info worse than memory for old
- 2. Declines in fluid intelligence but not crystallized intelligence
- 3. Slower on timed tasks
- 4. Recall declines more than recognition
- 5. Decline in tasks that require divided attention
Give an example of recall and an example of recognition.
- Recall - fill in the blank
- Recognition - multiple choice
What is Selective Optimization with Compensation?
Older people pare down number of activities to deal with deficits, but concentrate attention in areas that most interest them.
What is the difference between Cross Sectional Design and Longitudinal Design.
- CSD - different age groups are measured at the same point in time.
- LD - research design in which one group is studied repeatedly over a period of time.
Define Cohort Effects.
Shared experience of a group.
Who was Jean Piaget?
Swiss developmental psychologist; landmark work in cognitive development.
What is a stage model (according to Piaget)?
Descrete stages, not continuous develpment.
When does the Sensorimotor stage occur? Key concepts?
- Birth to 2
- No concept of object permanence
- Before development of "symbolic thought"
What is symbolic thought?
Ability to think about things you are not actually sensing.
What babies are interested or surprised by.
When does the Preoperational stage occur? Key concepts?
- 2 - 7
- Start to use symbolic thought
Define Theory of Mind.
Understanding about the mind; understanding beliefs, intentions and desires - and particularly that OTHER people's minds guide their behaviors.
When does the concept of false belief and the ability to distinguish between appearance and reality occur.
3 - 5
When does the Concrete Operational stage occur?
7 - 11
When does the Formal Operational stage occur? Key concepts?
- 11 - 12
- abstract thought
What are criticisms of Piaget's model?
- 1. Observation of limited sample
- 2. Stages not as rigid, descrete
- 3. Skills may appear in particular form earlier
Structure of language.
What are the universal language stages?
- 1. babbling (6 months to 1 year)
- 2. one word utterances (1 to 1.5 years)
- 3. telegraphic speech (18 to 20 months)
Define Motherese (Parentese).
Slower, simpler, shorter, more clearly enunciated, repetitive, higher voice.
Define Critical Period.
"window of time" in development of organism during which particular development MUST occure.
Define Sensitive Period.
Periodds when developmental change is most efficient and effective.
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