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What is Clonidine?
What does it do?
Should it be taken orally?
An Alpha 2 agonist
Activation of Alpha 2 receptors in the brain, cause inhibition of sympathetic system.
- Supression of Release of NE by Presynaptic Alpha 2 receptors
- Yes-- has excellent Oral Bioavailability
What are some adverse effects of Clonidine?
What do you use it for?
Sedation, Bradycardia, sexual dysfunction and rebound hypertension.
- 1.Adjuvant in anesthesia
- 3. Hypertension (unpolular for this)
What is Alpha Methyl Dopa?
What is its mechanism?
What is it used for?
It is a Alpha 2 agonist
Gets converted to alpha-methylnorepinephrine. Activation of these at the brainstem--> inhibit SNS output and Lower BP
Drug of choice in Hypertension with Pregnancy.
List the Beta 2 agonists: (FRATS)
Which are short and which are long acting?
- Ritodrine---> used for uterine relaxant
- Albuterol--- Short acting--> Bronchial Asthma
- Formoterol--- Long acting--> Bronchial Asthma
- Salmeterol--- Long acting--> Bronchial Asthma
What are the clinical applications of Cocaine?
Cause Vasoconstiction and local anesthesia
What are the clinical applications of Catecholamines and Epinephrine
Anaphylaxis, gluacoma, asthma, and vasoconstriction
What are the clinical applications of Norepinephrine?
Cause vasoconstriction in hypotension
What are the clinical applications of Isoproterenol
Asthma, atrioventricular block
What are the clinical applications of Dopamine?
Shock, and heart failure
What are the clinical applications of Dobutamine?
Shock and heart failure
What are the clinical applications of Ephedrine
Asthma, urinary incontenence, and cause vasoconstriction in hypotension
What are the general effects of alpha blockade?
- -Hypotension (no vasoconstriction)
- -Reflex tachycardia (due to low BP)
- -Failure of Ejaculation (no SNS)
- -Postural Hypotension (low BP when standing up)
What are the Irreversible, alpha blockers?
What do you use this for?
What is Pheochromocytoma?
What are the Main symptoms?
A pheochromocytoma or phaeochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth  and secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually adrenaline (epinephrine) if in the adrenal gland and not extra-adrenal, and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
Pallor, Pressure, Pain, Palpation
What are the Reversible, Nonselective Alpha blockers?
What are the Reversible, selective Alpha blockers?
What are the Alpha 2 selective Alpha blockers?
What is Prazosin?
When is it used?
What are some side effects?
Slective Alpha 1 blocker
- Used in Hypertension and Benign prostate Hypertrophy
- Postural hypotension
- Sexual dysfunction (cannot ejaculate)
What are some uses of Alpha Blockers?
What are some adverse effects?
- Benign hypertrophy of the Prostate
- Postural Hypotension
When do you use BETA BLOCKERS?
- -Ischemic heart disease (just not Prinzmetals angina)
- -Therapy for Stable and unstable angina
- -Preferered therapies of Hypertension
- -Major anti-arrhythmic drugs
What are the non-selective, No intrinsic activity Beta Blockers?
What are the Non-Selective, Intrinsic activity Beta Blockers?
What are the Non-selective, Alpha blocking action, Beta blockers?
What are the Selective Beta-1 blockers?
What is Acebutolol?
It is a Beta-1 selective blocker WITH intrisic Sympathetic activity (ISA)
What are Propranolol's Effects in the:
- Heart--- Negative Inotropic,chronotropic, dromotropic action
- AV conduction--- decreased
- Respiritory tract--- bronchial constriction
- Eyes---decreases AqHumor production
- CNS--- Sedation, Lethargy, depression, Sleep probs
- Skeletal muscle--- Antagonizes the epinephrine induced tumors.
What is Inotropic,chronotropic, dromotropic action
- Inotropic-- contraction of the heart
- chronotropic-- Heart rate
- dromotropic -- effects the Conduction to the AV node
What are some precautions of Beta Blockers? Think of the ABCD's and H
- Be careful when the patient has:
- AV block
- COPD and Bronchial Asthma
- Diabetes Mellius