Enzyme that attaches free nucleotides to the growing new strand of DNA
Code for a trait
DNA Replication occurs because of
Cell Division or a deficiency/break in the genes
One strand of DNA is 3' to 5'; the other is 5' to 3'. One side is upside-down.
Where DNA is found in a prokaryotic cell
Where DNA is found in a eukaryotic cell
What did Griffith experiment on?
What did Griffith test?
Cooked and uncooked Streptococcus bacteria
What did Griffith discover?
The living nonvirulent bacteria could acquire the ability to cause disease from virulent bacteria. He called this process �transformation�.
Temperature of DNA death:
Temperature of protein death:
How did temperature affect Griffith's experiment?
The DNA survived the heat that killed the bacteria and continued the process of transformation.
What did Hershey and Chase test on?
How did Hershey and Chase perform their experiment?
Mixed sulfur (for proteins) with one batch of bacteriophages, and phosphorus(for DNA) in another. They mixed each batch in a blender and found that the injected cells contained phosphorus, and were therefore injected with DNA.
What did Hershey and Chase discover?
DNA is genetic material (in bacteriophages)
What did Watson and Crick do?
Won a Nobel Prize for figuring out the shape of DNA
Where did Rosalind Franklin come in?
She photographed DNA with x-rays, and Watson and Crick stole them.
DNA is made of
Nucleotides are made of
Phosphate, Deoxyribose(sugar), and a Nitrogenous base
four nitrogenous bases:
Adenine guanine thymine cytosine
What did Chargaff do?
Found that Adenine and Thymine amounts were equal; same with Guanine and Cytosine.
Types of bonds between sugars:
Strong Covalent Bonds
Types of bonds between nitrogenous bases:
Weak Hydrogen Bonds
Which pair of bases has a triple bond between them?
Guanine and cytosine
Which pair of bases has a double bond?
Adenine and thymine
Why does DNA replication occur?
If the cell is dividing or if the DNA is damaged
The model we use.
Name of bacteriophage cycle
What are bacteriophages made of?
DNA; wrapped in protein
What do bacteriophages do to the host cell?
They attach to the surfaces of bacteria and inject their hereditary information into the bacterial cell.
How does the bacteriophage-injected DNA behave?
This genetic material will combine with the host cell�s DNA. Once inside the bacteria, this info directs the production of hundreds of new viruses. The viruses grow and burst from the cell.
Explanation of semi-conservative model
Both strands of the old double helix separate and become one half of the new double helix.
Replication fork is
Initial point of separation
What DNA Helicase does
Unwinds and unzips DNA
What DNA Polymerase does
Attaches free nucleotides to the new growing DNA strand
Step One of semi-conservative DNA replication:
DNA helicase uncoils the DNA strand
Step two of semi-conservative DNA replication:
The hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases break
Step three of semi-conservative DNA replication:
DNA polymerase attaches floating nucleotides to the exposed parent strand until the complementary strand is completed.
Step four of the semi-conservative DNA replication model: