Marketing Exam 2
Card Set Information
Marketing Exam 2
Marketing Exam 2
drives motivate consumers to return to a preferred or desired state
Needs are aroused via three routes:
learned manifestation of needs
-product-specific needs or need satisfiers
innate or primary
desires that arise when a consumers actual state does not meet his or her desired state
-focuses attention on emotional objects
a driving force that moves or incites consumers to act
-focuses attention on goal-relevant objects
movement toward a desired object
movement away from an undesired object
pursuing an activity for its own sake
pursuing an activity in order to receive a reward
the need to control other people, objects, and the environment to acquire desired things
the need for belongingness and friendship,or to be a member of an important group
the need to accomplish difficult tasks
involve desires by consumers to fulfill self-expressive (social) and/or aesthetic requirements
involve desires by consumers to solve basic problems
result from goals that people seek to achieve
Examples of Functional Motives
-Ego (Inflate self relative to others)
-Understanding (learning and information)
-Protection ( help person to feel better about himself/herself, relieve guilt)
Opponent Process Theory
explains that reactions occur when a person receives a strong stimulus that elicits an immediate positive or negative emotional state
Optimum Stimulation Level Theory
A persons preferred amount of physiological activation or arousal
-varies from very high (panic) or very low (sleep)
Motivation to Maintain Behavioral Freedom
psychological reactance is the motivational state resulting from the response to threats to behavioral freedom
involve external pressure from other people to induce a consumer to do something
barriers that restrict the ability to buy a particular product or service
a consumers perception of the overall negativity of a course of action based upon as assessment of the possible negative outcomes and of the likelihood that these outcomes will occur
Perceived Risk consists of 2 major concepts
-negative outcomes of a decision
-the probability these outcomes will occur
Types of Consumer Risk
Factors Impacting Risk Perception
1. Characteristics of the person- need for arousal
2. Nature of the task- Voluntary risks are perceived as less risky than involuntary tasks
3. Characteristics of the product- price
4. Salience of negative outcomes- Availability heuristic, and dread effect.
the processes through which people make determinations of the causality of action
when a consumer decides that an endorser recommended the product because they actually liked it
When a consumer decides that an endorser recommended the product because they were paid for endorsing it
If external pressures exist that could provoke someone to act in a particular way - so actions would be expected given the circumstances. Results in external attribution
when a person moves against the forces of the environment to do something unexpected, the belief that the action represents the person's actual opinions, feelings, and desires is increased.
Results in internal attribution.
Fundamental Attribution Error
One consistent finding is that people are biased to make internal attributions to others
seek to get consumers to perceive internal motives for making endorsements
seek to get consumers to perceive external reasons for a product or corporate problem. Seek internal attributions for socially responsible actions
find ways to avoid consumers attributing the cause of the purchase to the sale rather than to the excellence of the product
Excitation Transfer Theory
Explains how arousal from one source can be misattributed to another source.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
- Consumers strive for "consonance" between specific behavior and attitudes related to that behavior
-Behavior-Attitude inconsistency creates dissonance, and unpleasant tension
-Consumer seek to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes to match their behaviors
-Discrepancies or surprises and interruptions increase arousal and emotion
-Discrepancies require immediate attention
-Small discrepancies produce positive emotions
-Large discrepancies produce negative emotions
the process of acquiring new information and knowledge about products and services for application to future behavior
enables past experiences and learning to influence current behaviors
occurs when a person makes associations between concepts
Comprehension and Memory Processes
2. Attractive Endorser
An unconditioned stimuli previously encountered without pairing will not be effectively linked to a conditioned stimulus
the process in which the frequency of occurrence of a bit of behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior
a previously neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcing properties through its association with a primary reinforcer - called chaining
any stimulus whose presence after a behavior decreases the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring
the disappearance of a response due to lack of reinforcement
those stimuli that occur in the presence of a reinforcer and do not occur in its absence
They indicate that a particular response will lead to a reward
occurs when an organism behaves differently depending on the presence of one of two stimuli.
occurs when an organism reacts similarly to two or more distinct stimuli.
the process of creating totally new operant behaviors by selectively reinforcing behaviors that successively approximate the desired instrumental response
the phenomenon where people observe the actions of others to develop "patterns of behavior"
requires relating new information to old information stored in memory
as comprehension increases, memory performance improves
the ay people perceive the shapes, forms, figures, and lines in their visual world.
how people draw upon their experience, memory, and expectations to attach meaning to a stimulus
the interpretation and expression of beauty
- critical in commercial design (logos, packaging, advertising)
Design and Gestalt Principles
good figure- has order, stability, simplicity, and continuity.
logos- characteristics of those liked the most and were most easily recognized (harmonious, natural)
aka golden ratio = 1.618
The point that cuts the line such that ratio of line A to line B is identical to the ratio of A to the entire line
Phi is an irrational number of 1.618 and a series of never ending digits
forgetting over time.
recently processed information is more accessible, or easy to retrieve
use it or lose it
forgetting as a result of shallow or superficial processing during encoding or retrieval
-encoding- attention, comprehension, and transference of information from short to long term memory
-retrieval- transference from long to short term memory
Absent mindedness results from being overloaded with information and not being able to focus on important stimuli. It is an attention problem, not a problem with shallow processing
retrieval failure due to interference from related information stored in memory
Closely related nodes, ideas, or pieces of information connected directly by a single association.
Distantly related nodes are connected by a chain or series of associations
Spreading activation; one node leads to tendency to think about nodes that are connected
Priming: activating a node will lead to inferences about other nodes
new associations increase the complexity of consumers associative networks
these new associations can compete with and block old associations
encoding specificity principle: context in which cognitive learning occurs becomes associated with the information learned
3 different types of memory confusion
1. Source confusion- remembering a fact and forgetting the source
2. Feelings of Familiarity- confusing feelings of familiarity with fame, confidence, liking, and truth. (Halo Effect)
3. False memories- the tendency to remember items or events that never happened
Mere exposure is not misattribution- it results from high levels of exposure to a stimulus, which causes increased liking.
misleading questions and suggestions can lead to memory distortions
ambiguous product experiences are open to multiple interpretations
prior beliefs can bias perception of current beliefs and experiences
current beliefs can bias memory for prior beliefs
not forgetting things we want to forget
Automatic Information Processing
The mental processes that occur without awareness or intention, but influence judgements, feelings, goals, and behaviors.
consumers base decisions on attitudes that come to mind automatically
often made with little or no conscious thought. Activated by feelings rather than by beliefs.
learning that occurs during everyday life without any intentions to learn
brief observations of another persons behavior that provide surprisingly accurate information about this persons personality, feelings, and goals
more accurate when
observations are brief and focused on nonverbal information and consumers have a lot of practice
consumers are aware that they are searching for information stored in memory
searching for information without awareness or intention
consumers are subtly lead to think about a concept such as a brand name, attribute, or benefit
The truth effect
as familiarity for a brand increases....
-a brand names seems more famous
-liking for the brand increases
-judgements about the brand are held with more confidence
Belief and comprehension are inseparable
Consumers initially believe everything in order to understand
Unbelieving is a separate process, requiring time and effort
Distraction can inhibit unbelieving as well as information overload, such as when multi-tasking
defined as the "totality of the individuals thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as and object.
defined as "the distinctive patterns of behavior, including thoughts, and emotions, that characterize each individuals adaptation to the situations of his or her life."
The goal is to identify personality variables that distinguish large groups of people from each other
The measurement of the life-styles of consumers
Self Concept in Consumer Research
The self concept represents the "totality of the individuals thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as an object"
the numerous positions that consumers occupy in society
modes of interpersonal behavior
measure of adequacy
the relationship between a consumers self concept and his or her possessions
the second most common word consumers use to describe their feelings about possessions
derive emotional status by helping consumers resolve internal conflicts
the extent to which consumers use situational cues to guide their social behavior
High Self Monitors
routinely modify their behavior to match the exceptions of others
Low Self monitors
act primarily on the basis of their internal beliefs and attitudes
the process of creating desirable images of ourselves for others
Consumers practice impression management to obtain...
praise, approval, sympathy, favors, liking
controlling clothes, grooming, verbal communications, and possessions
a set of strategic behaviors designed to gain benefits or favors from other people
comments that attempt to realign behavior with norms
refers to self serving tactics engaged in by one person to make himself or herself more attractive to another
Personality has 4 essential characteristics
1. Behavior must show consistency over time
2. Behavior should distinguish the person from others
3. Personality characteristics are not rigidly connected to specific types of behavior
4. Personality variables often moderate the effects of other variables on behavior
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
Personality results from the clash of 3 forces - the id, the ego, and the superego
1. The id represents physiological drives
2. The ego represents acts to curb the appetites of the id
3. The superego is the conscience or "voice within"
3 Key principles, plus research implications
1. Pleasure principle
: basis for functioning of id
2. Reality principle
: basis for functioning of ego.
3. Death wish
: elicited by death symbols.
4. Large impact on research methods
- Depth interviews, focus groups
any characteristic in which one person differs from another in a relatively permanent and consistent way.
3M Model of Motivation and Personality
Behavioral Depositions result from a system of traits operating together
Traits organized into 4 levels based upon their level of abstraction- abstract to concrete
Most basic/abstract arising from genetics and early learning history
cross-situational predispositions arising from combinations of elemental traits and the cultural environment (competitiveness)
predispositions to act within a general situational context
highly concrete enduring dispositions to act within specific contexts
- Healthy diet focus
-Aggressive driving propensity
-Distracted driving propensity
8 proposed elemental traits
1. Openness to experience
5. Emotional Stability
6. Need for material resources
7. Need for arousal
8. Need for body resources
defined as a chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative feelings
as many as 5% of consumers are compulsive
how many people live, how they spend their money, and how they allocate their time.
traditionally life style and personality have been viewed as different
the set of human characteristics associated with a brand
based upon motivational and developmental psychological theories particularly Maslow's hierachy of needs theory
developed specifically to measure consumer buying patters
Goal is to identify specific relationships between consumers attitudes and purchase behavior.
Used by corporations to understand the basis for consumer lifestyles, which is useful for developing promotional strategy and even where to place retail stores.
-Psychographic inventories often result in clever descriptions of a target market that can result in stereotypes
-It can result in managers disparaging the target group
-It can cause managers to view the target market as more homogeneous than it really is.
carried out automatically, with little conscious effort
Intermediate Problem Solving
limited information search and deliberation
Extensive Problem Solving
requires deliberate and systematic effort
a continuum from automatic to systematic processing
a continuum from low to high personal relevance
6. Opportunity Cost
7. Information Risk (buying stock)
a natural inertia toward a brand based on familiarity and convience
intrinsic commitment to a brand based on specific benefits or values offered
a deliberated effort to collect information and carefully evaluate a variety of brands