The revolutions from the 1820's- 1848 were a conflict between:
Absolute Monarchy and Constitutionalism
1820's: Univ. and teachers tried to write constitution and failed
What were the 3 states the Italian Peninsula needed in the 1820's?
Venetia, Lombardi, and the Papal States
1820's: This group worked for independence and unification of the Italian Peninsula
1820's: The fight for independence of Greece was led by
What was the only successful revolution in the 1820's?
1820's: What country tried to limit the power of their ruler by constitution and failed?
Russia (Czar Nicholas I)
1815: This law allowed for raised/high food prices til the end of the British Revolution
1832: In Britain, this change in voter districts gave working men a little more representation in Praliament
1838: In GB, gave the right to vote for all adult males
1839: In GB, this was the name of the group fighting to lower food prices w/ an eventual win in 1846
Anti-Corn Law League
1847: In GB, women and boys under 12 couldn't work more than 10 hours a day/ 7 days a week under this law
Ten Hour Act
1830's France: this group wanted to return to absolutism
(A Reactionary) declared himself absolute monarch. Was thrown out after 3 days
Charles X (replaced Louis XVIII)
Bourgeoisie King (or people's king)
France (Louis Philippe) invades this country and fails. Only successful revolution in the 1830's!
'Belgium would be neutral and independent in perpetuity (forever)' signed by all European powers.
Guarantee of 1839
1831: this country wanted its land back. Most of it's ppl lived in Germany.
1831-32: Italian Peninsula
'Carbonari' become 'Young Italy' led by Guiseppe and Mazzinni
1830-33: German States
Carls Badd Decree
Four Common Factors of the Revolutions of 1848:
4) Economic Problems
1848: Ppl no longer wanted a monarchy, they wanted a __________
Second French Republic
What was the conflict of the Second French Republic?
-during transition, two different men ruled
-the 'Dole' (Welfare) was started, but they ran out of $
France 1848: Ppl rioted b/c of lack of $. Authorities had to come in to end riots.
France 1848: This person was elected and calmed things down
Prince Louis Napoleon
Italian peninsula 1848: Who faught w/ the Carbonari for Italian independence?
Italian Peninsula 1848: Who faught w/ Young Italians for Italian independence? (2)
Garibaldi and Cavor
Metternich's home country
Austrian ruling family
1848: What did the Hapsburgs do in Austria?
Signed a constitution and then ran away w/ fear
1848: New Hapsburg loyal to Austria who the army puts on the throne
1848: The two potential countries who try to gain their independence from the lack of leadership in Austria at this time
Bohemia and Hungary
1848: Rulling family of Prussia
1848: ruler of Prussia
Frederick William IV
1848: Frederick William IV
weak ruler of Prussia who ok'ed the writing of a constitution and then did not approve of it b/c not all German states signed it and thus threw it out.
1848: this man told Frederick William IV (Prussia) to 'man up' and that he needed to rule all German states
Otto Von Bismarck
1848: the name of the group of German states that met up w/ Bismarck in Frankfurt to sign constitution
a change from making goods at home to in a factory, by hand to a machine (1780)
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England? (9)
1) Stable Government: Eng. had stable gov't since 1688 (Glorious Revolution)
2) Experienced Business Class: b/c of trade w/ colonies
3) Good Markets: in colonies
4) Moble Wage- Earning Class: from farmers moving to cities to be factory workers
5) Central Bank: who regulates $ supply and value
6) Good transportation: island, rivers, canals, ports
7) No international tarrifs (taxes): so products could move cheaply
8) Generally, higher standard of living in England: ppl had a little $, so there was a market @ home
9) Good Natural Resources: Coal, Iron-Ore, & Water
The Industrial Revolution began w/ making what, since machines would only work so fast and were made of wood, then iron, then steel?
If this had not improved, then industry would not have happened:
Why did the Industrial Revolution not move to continental Europe til after 1815?
They were in the midst of other revolutions and they had to defeat Napoleon so they would have $
Trade union in the German states to pool goods to trade together
Hand craftsan in England that decided to burn the factories one night b/c the factories were making their products faster and cheaper
Children 8 and under would be in a factory school (9-13 worked 8hr/day, 14-17 12hr/day, 18 & up whatever told)
Factory Act of 1833
Women and boys under 10 could not work in underground mines
Mines Act of 1842
Formed a union (too big to work) later organized by craft
All Adult males could vote
What caused town population growth in Europe in the Industrial Revolution?
Factories furnished many jobs in the towns so ppl moved there from the country
What caused emigration from Europe during the Industrial Revolution?
Too much pop. growth in Euro. factory towns, so they moved to America
What happened in Non-Industrialized Ireland during the Industrial Revolution?
Potato Blight (drought, had to start raising sheep)
Most radical ideas were _________
What economic group wants to 'stay the same'
What economic group wants to 'make a change'
(Liberal)- "Gov't should butt out of business"
"We're all gonna die. Earth can't provide enough food, so we need to: 1. have a big war or epidemic to kill ppl off or 2. don't marry til after child bearing age and abstain til then"
"Iron law of Wages"- never pay wages very much, they have plenty of kids, there will always be an oversupply of labor.
Can be +/-: loyal to gov't or too loyal (Hitler, Musolini, can lead to violence or aggression)
Began in France and main thought is about the right to a job is sacred
'Gov't should furnish jobs for everyone'
'The right to work is sacred and gov't should see that everyone has a job'
Began in France. No gov't at all. Gov't just makes ppl mad
German. 'Wealth is bad. Should not work to gain wealth.' Went to France to study.
'The Dialectic'. Influenced Karl Marx.
Thesis & antiTHESIS > synTHESIS & antiTHESIS > synTHESIS (and it goes on and on...)
applied to nobles and wealth:
Nobles & Bougoiseie > Boug & Proletariat (this fight was still going on) > Prolet. (eventually it will end here w/ the workers owning the factories)
Written by Marx and Engles telling workers to unite against the owners
(Marx) Explanation about how bad capitalism was. Stated that it would collapse on its own.