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What is propositional representation?
Propositional Representaion is a symbolic description (meaning)
What is Analog representation?
Analog Representation: representation that preserves the stucture of the original information in a more or less direct manner
What did Shepard and Metzler discover about visual imagery?
Shepard and Metzler discovered that because visual imagery relies on visual code, it involves the same rules as real world objects,
- Ex. manipulation, rotation, etc.
What is the Dual Task Interference?
Dual Task Interference is when subjects are given a grid of numbers to remember then are given a distractor and tested on the grid later.
in the Visuospacial sketch pad, subjects were tested to see if the distractor would interfere with visual maintenance
What is an example of a dual task interferece test?
Heye & Barrett's number grid in 1971 tested two things from a subject's memory:
- 1. It test the acuracy of the location of the number on the grid
- 2. It test the recall of the actual number itself
What were the results that Heyer and Barrett attained?
Heyer and Barrett discovered taht a verbal distractor disrupted identifiying the numbers that were in the grids, and that a visual distractor disrupted knowing where the numbers belonged on the grid
What was Baddeley's conclusion after studying patient KF and performing his memory experiments?
Baddeley's conclusion was that the modal model was too simplistic and that the evidence indicated that different brain regions are dedicted to WM for spacial locations and object recognition
What does the Dorsal Pathway relate to ?
The Dorsal Pathway relates to producing actions and understanding the spacial location of objects
What does the Ventral Pathway relate to?
The Ventral Pathway relates to the knowledge of an object and the ability to recognize it
What was the Oculomotor Delayed Response Task?
The Oculomotor Delayed Response Task was asking monkeys to remember a fixed location of an object and then tested their eye movement and brain activity after a delay
What were the conclusion reached by the ODR paradigm?
The conclusion from the Oculomotor Delayed Response Task (ODR paradigm) was that activity in the parietal cortex and frontal eye fields is correlated to the accuracy of memory guided eye movement
What is the site for visual LTM ?
- The site for visual LTM is the Inferior Temporal Cortex
What is Fusiform face Area?
- Fusiform Face Area is a specialized area in the brain that recognizes familiar faces and it is located in the hind bottom part of the temporal lobe
Wat is the Parahippocampal Place Area ?
The Parahippocampal Place Area is a lower part of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus and is responsible for encoding, and recognition of scenes
What was O'Craven and Kanwisher's hypothesis about our perception of images and our imagination of those images?
O'Craven and Kanwisher hypothesized that in the PPA and FFA we should see the same activity while imagining or perceiving an image
What is the Central Executive?
The Central Executive is one the systems in Baddeley's WM model. Its functions are to mediate between conflicting tendencies, allowing for multitasking, and selection of information to be processed in WM
In what part of the brain would the central executive be located?
- The Central Executive would be located on the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
What are some effects of damage to the Prefrontal lobe where the Central Executive is located?
Some of the effects could be:
- Dysexecutive syndrome, where there is cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems
- -tangential speech
- -problems maintaining task set
- -easily distracted by stimuli
What is the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task?
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task asked subjects to used cards to figure out a hidden rule. Once this rule was discovered a new hidden rule was formed and patients had to figure that out.
During the wisconsin card sorting task, what did patients with prefrontal damage do?
Patients with prefrontal damaged continued to sort the cards by the original rule and could not solve the new rule
What did D'Esposito test in his experiments?
D'Esposito tested mental rotation or mental rotation and semantic decision vs. both tasks at the same time.
What did D'Esposito conclude from his results?
D'Esposito concluded that the Central Executive is involved in manipulation of infomation
He also concluded that there is more Dorsolateral PFC activation during manipulation than maintenance
What were D'Esposito's results from his experiment with mental rotaion and semantic decision?
- -D'Esposito data showed that with single task conditions, there Postirior Cortical Activation
- -Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activation was found duringdual task conditions
What does Working Memory say about Rehearsal?
- WM stats that Rehearsal involes a general interaction between motor control and perceptual representation.
- -Eyes ---->visuospacial sketch pad
- -Mouth--->phonological loop
What does WM have to say about Maintenance?
WM states that Maintenance of visual objects involves activation of visual object representation in inferior temporal cortex
What is the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (central executive) responsible for?
The Dorsolateral PFC mediates control processes that inhibit distracting information and manipulate information that is active