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What are the limitation of Baddeley's Working Memory model?
The Limitation of Baddeley's WM model are that;
- -interference at the buffers doesnt eliminate memory completely
- -the binding problem
- -maintenance of complex linguistic information
- -Never explains chunking as well as meaningfulness
- -never shows the relationship between LTM and WM
What is the Binding Problem?
The Binding problem is the issue that how is information that is variously distributed in patterns result in coherent representations
What did Baddeley discover about patients who had amnesia?
Baddeley discovered that although they had amnesia, patients had prose recall that could not be explained by WM
What did Braddeley do when he realized flaws in the WM model?
Baddeley added the Episodic Buffer
What was the flaw with the addition of the Episodic Buffer?
The flaw with the episodic buffer was that it suggested that even patients with impaired LTM should be able to maintain relational information across short delays ...but they couldn't
What is the Embedded Processes Model of WM?
In the Embedded Processes Model of WM, the same systems are used for recall and encoding however our central executive focuses our attention to information in LTM
Who Tested the limits of visual working memory and how did they do this ?
Luck and Vogel tested the limits of Visual working memory by asking patients to recall a certain number of shapes. patients had to recall not only their orientaion and color but also the spacial location of the shapes.
What is the capacity of Visual WM ?
The capacity of visual working memory is 3-4 objects
What did Luck and Vogel discover in their WM experiments?
Luck and Vogel discovered that the capacity of visual WM was not determined by the number of features objects had, but they the number of objects that were asked to be recalled
What are the key concepts of hte WM model 2.0?
- -different buffers process different types of memory
- -buffers mediate maintenance, Central Executive mediates control and manipulation of information
- -Phonological maintenance is done in the perisylvian cortex and Broca's area
- -Spatial maaintenance is done in the posterior parietal cortex and frontal eye fields
- -object maintenance is in the inferior temporal cortex
- -the prefrontal cortex is involved with the central executive
- -Visual WM capacity is limited to intergrate 3-4 objects
What is a problem with the model Model?
it doesnt not clearly distinguish between the different kinds of processes in STM and different kinds of processes have different effects on LTM.
What is Encoding??
Encoding is the relationship between how information is processed and the degree to which this processing impacts learning
What is the Total Time Hypothesis?
The Total Time Hypothesis states that the amount learned is a direct function of the time spend learning
Which is a more effective method, Distributed Practice or Massed Practice?
Distributed practice is more effective because a learning schedule promotes meaningful learning as oppose to mass material presented repeatedly in a shorted period of time.
What are the Assumptions of The Levels of Processing?
Assumptions of the Levels of Processing are that :
- -LTM is a result of shallow or deep analyses
- --the deeper the analysis the better the LTM
- --Maintenance rehearsal will not improve LTM
- --Eleborate rehearsal will improve LTM
- --Encoding strategies must be used to have intentional learning.