Bio Exam 3

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Bio Exam 3
2010-10-28 02:38:00

review for 3rd exam
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  1. 3 pieces of interphase and describe
    • g1-growth of cell
    • S-synthesis of DNA (2 sister chromosomes produce)
    • g2-chromosomes condense
  2. Stages of Mitotis
  3. 3 checkpoints in cell
    • G1S-cell splits
    • G2M-Commitment to mitosis
    • Spindle-all chromosomes attach (late metaphase)
  4. How does Eukrayotic divison differ from pro?
    • Pro- much simplier, binary fussion
    • single dna molecule attaches to copy
  5. whats being seperated in meiosis 1 in anaphase
    homologous chromosomes
  6. being seperated during anaphase in meio 2
    sister chromotids
  7. discribe difference btwn haploid and diploid
    • hap- end of meio 1
    • dip-end of meio 2
  8. binary fussion
    division of bateria. the single circular bacterial chromo is replicated.
  9. septum
    forms to divide the ccell into 2 cells
  10. chromatin
    a complex of DNA and protiens that eukaryotic chromosoms are made out of
  11. heterchromatin
    not expressed in Eukary. chromosomes
  12. euchromatin
    expressed in regions in eukary chromosomes
  13. karyotype
    particular array of chromosomes of an organism
  14. kinetochores
    center where replicated chromosomes are connected to each other
  15. cohesion
    complex of protiens holding replicated chromosomes together
  16. sister chromatids
    2 copies of the chromosome within the replicated chromosome
  17. eukaryotic cell cycle
    interphase (g1,s,g2), mitosis, cytokenisis,
  18. condensation
    during G2 when chromosome become tightly coiled
  19. centrioles
    (microtubule-organizing centers) replicate and one cetriole moves to each pole
  20. prophase
    chromosomes condense, centrioles move to each side of cell, spindles are assembled, nuclear envelope dissolves.
  21. prometaphase
    • (Attachment phase)
    • chromosomes become attached to spindle by kinetochores, second set of microtubules is formed and begin to pull each chromosome toward center of cell
  22. metaphase
    chromosomes align at center of cell on the metaphase plate
  23. anaphase
    • removal of cohesion protiens causes centromes to seperate, microtubules pull sister chromatids toward the poles,
    • (in anaA the kineetochores pull apart but in anaB the poles move apart)
  24. telephase
    • spindles disappear, nucleaur envelople formed around each set of sister chromatids, chromosomes uncoil, nucleaus appears
    • redoes prophase
  25. cytokinesis
    when cell splits.
  26. cleavage furrow
    (cytokenisis in animal cell) constriction of actin filaments produces
  27. checkpoints
    • g1/S-cell decides to divide
    • g2/M-cell makes commiitment to mitosis
    • splindle-late metaphase--ensures all chromosomes are attached to splindle.
  28. tumor-suppresor genes and proto-oncogenes
    • 1.genes that say no, prevent development of many cells containing mutations (ex. p53 halts cell division if damaged DNA is detected)
    • genes that say yes
  29. meiosis
    form of cell division that leads to production of gamets
  30. gamets
    • egg and sperm. each contain half number of chromosomes
    • haploid (contain 1 set of chromosomes)
  31. somatic cells
    • adult body cells and are diploid meaning they contain set of 2 chromosomes
    • our every day cells
  32. sexual reproduction
    • fusion of gamets (fertilization) to produce a diploid zygote
    • gamets are sex cells
  33. synapsis
    during meiosis 1 when homologous chromosomes become closely associated with each other
  34. synaptonemal complex
    protiens btwn the hologues hodl them
  35. crossing over
    • copy and paste of DNA
    • genetic recomb. btwn non sister chromatids
    • physical exchange of regions btwn chromatids
    • it occurs in the chiasmata
  36. Meiosis 1
    • p-chromosomes coil 2gther, nuclueas dissolves, homolgues associates closey with snapsis, crossing over occurs
    • M- terminal chaismate hld homolo 2gther after crossing over, microtubules attach to each homo...NOT SISTER CHORTIDS, align randomly
    • A- splindle shorten, homolo are separated, sister chromatids are attahced to other at cetromeres
    • T- nucleur envelope form around each chromosome, new nuclues is now hap, sister chroma no longer identical bcus of C.Over
  37. Meiosis II
    resembles mitotic divison
  38. Meiosis VS. Mitosis
    • Meiosis-synapsis & c.over, sister chrom remain joined at cetromeres throughtout meio1, knetochores of sister attach to same pole in meio1, dna rep is supressed btwn 1 nd 2, produce haploid and arent ident. random alignment
    • mitosis-produce 2 cells identical to each otehr
  39. f1 generation
    offspring of 2 truebreeding strains, resemble only 1 parent
  40. f2 generation
    offspring resul from self-fert. of f1 plants.
  41. gene & allele
    information for a trait passed from parent to offspring

    allele-alternate form of gene
  42. geno and pheno
    • geno-total set of allels of an indvidual
    • PP=homo dom, pp=homo rec. Pp=hete
    • pheno-physical
  43. Principle of segregation
    two alleles for a gene segrgate during gamet formation and re rejoined at random, one from each parent during fert.
  44. pedigree analysis
    track inheritance patterns in families
  45. pleiotropy
    refers to an allele which has more than one effect on the phenotype
  46. extensions to mendel
    • each trait controled by single gene
    • each gene has only 2 alleles
    • clear dom-rec relationship between alleles
    • polygenic inheritance
    • incomplete domin
    • codominance
  47. epistasis
    one gen can interfere with the expression of another gene (kitty)
  48. chromosome theory
    • Walter Sutton (1902)
    • genes present on chromosomes