-chronic progressive inflammatory disorder that can cause major damageto body and organs could cause them to fail
-has butterfly shaped rash on face, has exacerbations, have kidney involvement. cause vasculitis, which deprive organs of blood/oxygen, coin lesions=discoid lupus
pericarditits is most common cardiac manifestation.Raynauds phenomenon=on exposure to cold or extreme stress.
diet: reduce salt, fat and cholesterol intake.
chronic inflammatory autoimmune connective tissue disease, means harding of the skin.
Sclerodactyly scleroderma of the digits
Telanhiectasia spider like hemangiomas
autoamputation of the distal digits
when tips of the digits spontaneously fall off
is systemic disease in which urate crystals deposit in the joints and other body tissues, usually accumulate in the big toe (Podagra) and feet.
Tophi=deposits of sodium urate crystals, most commonly found on the outer ear, arms or fingers near joints.
diet:avoid organ foods, shellfish, aspirin and diuretics.
teach to drink plenty of fluids in order to prevent an attack.
an autoimmune disease that causes blistering in the epidermis. The client has large flaccid blisters (bullae). Because the blisters are in the epidermis, they have a thin covering of skin and break easily, leaving large denuded areas of skin. On initial examination, clients may have crusting areas instead of intact blisters. .
Zalcitabine (ddC, Hivid)
is an antiretroviral (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) used to manage human immunodeficiency virus infection in combination with other antiretrovirals. Zalcitabine also has been used as a single agent in clients who are intolerant of other regimens. Zalcitabine can cause serious liver damage, and liver function studies should be monitored closely.
is toxic to the kidneys. The serum creatinine level is monitored before therapy, two or three times per week during induction therapy, and at least weekly during maintenance therapy. Foscarnet also may cause decreased levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium. Thus, these levels also are measured with the same frequency.
could cause leukopenia and anemia
could cause pancreatitis, watch serum amylase
can also cause liver failure
Zalcitabine slows the progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by improving the CD4+ cell count.
counts<500 cells indicate need for treatment
the immune system fails to get rid of antigen-antibody immune complexes from the glomerular membrane. As a result, the affected person will begin to experience decreased glomerular filtration with development of signs of chronic renal failure.
-type 3 hypersensitivity repsonse
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (Plaqunil)
Ocular toxicity is an adverse reaction with the use of hydroxychloroquine sulfate. An eye examination should be performed when medication therapy is started and after 6 months of therapy.
have the job of making antibodies and mediating humoral immunity
Immune response three phases
Specific immune responses have three main phases. These include the recognition phase, the activation phase, and the effector phase. Memory is not a feature of an immune response.
Jobs of Eosinophils, basophils, dendritic and neutrophils
Eosinophils attack and destroy foreign particles that have been coated with antibodies of the IgE class. Their usual target is helminths (parasitic worms). Basophils mediate immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Dendritic cells perform the same antigen-presenting task as that of macrophages. Neutrophils phagocytize foreign particles such as bacteria.
Interferon is produced by several types of cells and is effective against a wide variety of viruses. It works on the host cells to induce protection and differs from an antibody, which inactivates viruses found outside the cells.
ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
a rate greater then 20 indicates infection
the normal ESR range is 0 to 30 mm/hr. Generally, an ESR value of 30 to 40 mm/hr indicates mild inflammation, 40 to 70 mm/hr indicates moderate inflammation, and 70 to 150 mm/hr indicates severe inflammation.
a decrease in the number of all cell types. This finding is most likely caused by a direct attack of all blood cells or bone marrow by immune complexes. found in SLE(lupus)
Superior vena cava syndrome
Superior vena cava syndrome occurs when the superior vena cava is compressed or obstructed by tumor growth. Early signs and symptoms generally occur in the morning and include edema of the face, especially around the eyes, and client complaints of tightness of a shirt or blouse collar. As the compression worsens the client experiences edema of the hands and arms. Mental status changes and cyanosis are late signs
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
tumors can produce like effects on ADH.
-mild S/S include weakness, muscle cramps, loss of appitite, fatigue, Na 115-120(decreased)
-moderate S/S include:water intoxication, wt gain, personality changesm confusion, and extreme muscle weakness
-severe=Na<110 could cause seizures, coma and eventually death
-interventions=initiate fluid restriction,increase Na, tx with chemo and radiation