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a process by which the person discovered that a given infraction could be pulled off by someone, that the individual had the ability to do it himself or herself and that the fear or apprehension could be managed.
considered to be imposed on the individual by external forces such as parents, teachers, and the police through direct restraints accompanied by punishment for violation.
the child develops a concept of who he or she “really is” by imagining how he or she appears to others and how other interpret and evaluate what the perceive and then by forming a sense of self based on that process.
looking glass self
represents a process of fundamental awareness that becomes focused in different ways, leading to the development of the social self.
the social self
social control over people.
social relationships that are meaningful and we don’t want to jeopardize.
stakes in conformity
Techniques of neutralizations
- 1.) denial of responsibility
- 2.) denial of injury
- 3.) denial of the victim
- 4.) condemnation of the condemners
- 5.) appeal to higher loyalties
found gang membership provides a substitute for disorganized and fragmented community; one that develops its own values and traditions of loyalty and support for fellow gang members.
Thraser's The Gang
Hagan’s two types of families:
- Patriarchal families- parents exercise greater control over female children than over male children.
- Egalitarian- parents supervise female and male children more.
Hirschi’s social bonds:
- Attatchment- opposite of “absence makes the heart grow stronger” such as "out of site out of mind".
- Commitment- institutions like school and work
- Involvement- time committed to the above institutions
- Beliefs- what we believe such as crimes are wrong
“threat of force and intimidation aimed at creating compliance through fear”
Social domains in which criminals are failing according to Gottfredson and Hirschi:
school, work, marriage and so on
Tittle’s continuum of deviance:
- Left side: repression- control deficit
- Middle: conformity
- Right side: autonomy (complete control)
Each person has a certain amount of control. You control someone or someone controls you.
- Tittle’s control balance theory
- Balanced control- conformity
- Control deficit & surplus- more likely deviant
balances community safety, accountability and competency development.
- BARJ (balanced and restorative justice)
- accountability, competency development and community safety.
a practice that regularly takes large numbers of males out of inner-city communities for prolonged absences.
labels cause deviance, social label increase.
shunning offender which results in pushing him or her further from society.
arises from a variety of sociocultural and psychological sources. (the “first act”)
shunning offender, then permitting emergent of offender back into conventional society
goal is to reintegrate the offender into the community.
guiding principle of the criminal sanction should be to:
decrease harm by restoring a) the harm that was done to the victim and b) the offender to the community.
precipitated by the responses of others to the initial proscribed conduct. (second act)
"all processes of expressing disapproval which have the intention or effect of invoking remorse in the person being shamed and/or condemnation by others who become aware of the shaming”.
Tittle’s statements against labeling theory
He said that labeling is NOT the result of disadvantaged backgrounds and NOT the cause of subsequent offending. It just tells us that discrimination exists
Basic idea of conflict theory:
- The structure of capitalism involving private ownership and vast differences in equality creates conflict and contradictions that provide the conditions of crime.
- Conflict theorists see the source of conflict in different group interests.
source of conflict is class structure of capitalisms exploitative system of economic production.
Basic idea of Marxist approach/radical theory
theories that focus attention on struggles between individuals and/or groups in terms of power differentials fall into this category.
Rules enforced by the powerful to maintain their economic, political and social positions content of law and what crime is powerful
How conflict theorists see the law
a coercive instrument of repression used by the dominant classes.
How the Marxist approach/radical theory (instrumental version) sees the law
protector and ideological vehicle of capitalist system and an ideological vehicle mystifying class exploitation in building consensus for capitalism by providing genuine rights and protections.
How the Marxist approach/radical theory (structualist version) sees the law
conflict was inherent in the nature of social arrangement under capitalism for it was capitalism that generated vast differences in interest and capitalism that gave the few people at the top so much power over the many at the bottom.
Marx and Engel’s view of conflict theory
Reasons why capitalism is criminogenic according to conflict theory
it intensifies the differences in positions of domination and subordination and produces the conditions for humans to commit crime.
Quinney's crimes of dominance
crimes of control (police brutality), crimes of the government (Watergate-style offenses), and crimes of economic domination (white-collar crime, organized crime)
Quinney's crimes of accommodation and resistance:
predatory crimes (theft), and personal crimes (homicide) which were provoked by the conditions of capitalism and crimes of resistance (terrorism) which involved the political struggle against the state.
It was shown that children coming from overcrowded homes and homes with residential mobility, unemployed mothers, lack of supervision are more likely to have serious delinquency problems.
First major finding by Laub and Sampson (1988, p. 375, articles)
Matza's triggers for delinquency
preparation and desperation
ability to follow norms, self-concept and self-esteem.
relationships and reinforcements
involves two elements: capacity for self control and the desire for self control.
Tittle, Ward and Grasmick’s constructs of self- control theory
what peacemaking criminology aims to build
tries to accommodate conflict through various means of conflict resolution such as moral suasion and informal negotiation.
Matsueda’s (1992) fourth principle finding (p. 1602, articles)
previous delinquent behavior influences reflected appraisals of self.